Nearly every industry requires water and wastewater treatment to some degree. From food and beverage to pulp and paper operations, influent and effluent must meet certain conditions to adhere to regulatory and/or performance requirements, and water used during the process must conform as well.
Xylem TotalCare Condition Audit, an inspection and recommendation program that helps plant operators find ways to lower maintenance costs by identifying inefficiencies in the operation of water and wastewater equipment, was elected to audit the American Canyon Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in California.
Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was first documented in the early 1970’s. Traditionally it has been understood that EBPR requires a first stage anaerobic zone that is free of nitrate and nitrite. In the anaerobic zone, phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO) utilize energy from stored polyphosphate to assimilate volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and produce polyhydroxybutyrate storage products.
When Flint Michigan discontinued purchasing water from the Detroit Water Authority and began using the Flint River as their raw water source they unfortunately did not consider the potential impact on lead and copper corrosion and the impact on the public.
Facing state Department of Environmental Quality mandates, an Arizona wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) took on a large-scale expansion project and effluent-quality upgrade to become a state-of-the-art water reclamation facility.
The core of Coriolis mass flowmeters are oscillating tubes. As soon as mass is flowing through them, a Coriolis force is affecting the oscillation, creating a phase shift.
Crews in Nashville and Davidson County, Tennessee, at times have worked around the clock – 24 hours a day, seven days a week – to complete Metro Water Services’ Cumberland City Low Transmission Water Main project. There is good reason for this full-throttle approach. It minimizes traffic issues and allows for more scheduling flexibility.
In the Spring of 2018, Matchpoint was contracted by the City of Arlington to provide UAV-Based Leak Detection after onsite leaks proved to be evasive and difficult to locate using traditional leak detection methods. At that point, Arlington enlisted Matchpoint’s UAV services to locate the leak in a less traditional, but innovative new way — using the UAV to analyze RGB and thermal imagery.
A pharmaceutical manufacturing plant located in Sedom, Israel faced challenging environmental conditions including low humidity, temperatures exceeding 105 degrees Fahrenheit and limited water supplies.
Most people accept that major purchases in life — e.g., housing, automobiles, appliances — come with cyclical budgeting impacts that require amortizing costs over the long term, through savings or borrowing. Why should anyone expect the national water infrastructure to be any different?
In a number of water, wastewater and industrial process applications, pH is one of the most critical and highly sensitive analytical measurements. Examples of critical pH applications include: Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems in which a controlled feed of caustic solution is typically added to the feed stream in order to convert a portion of dissolved carbon dioxide into bicarbonate precipitate allowing for removal by the RO membrane. By Rafik H. Bishara, Steve Jacobs, and Dan Bell
UV disinfection systems disinfect water using UV light at the 254 nm wavelength. UV light at this wavelength actually destroys the DNA of microbiological material in the water which prevents dangerous viruses such as cryptosporidium and e-coli from reproducing and causing harm.
Oxidation Reduction Potential or Redox is the activity or strength of oxidizers and reducers in relation to their concentration. Oxidizers accept electrons, reducers lose electrons. Examples of oxidizers are: chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, bromine, ozone, and chlorine dioxide. Examples of reducers are sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfate and hydrogen sulfide. Like acidity and alkalinity, the increase of one is at the expense of the other.
Before water can be used as a safe and reliable source for drinking water, it must be properly treated. Since water is a universal solvent, it comes in contact with several different pathogens, some of which are potentially lethal, and inactivation is accomplished through chemical disinfection and mechanical filtration treatment. This treatment consists of coarse filtration to remove large objects and pre-treatment which includes disinfection using chlorine or ozone
Harmsco® Filtration Products is pleased to offer a solution to the ever increasing blue-algae blooms in water sources. A multi-barrier approach is necessary to physically remove intact (algae and cyanobacteria) before they rupture in the treatment process and then remove extracellular cyanobacteria through adsorption.
Facility administrators will find the advanced ST100 Series Thermal Mass Air/Gas Flow Meter from Fluid Components International (FCI) helps them improve the accuracy of specialty gas point of use and sub-metering operations to achieve accurate billing in their labs for better cost tracking and control.
Electrodeionization (EDI) is a widely used water treatment process. EDI technology is an electrochemical process that uses ion selective membranes and an electrical current to continuously remove ions from water. The process uses ion exchange resin to remove the ions from the feed stream, producing pure water.
Pressure reducing valves (PRVs) are used throughout water distribution systems to reduce pipeline pressure to a predetermined set point. This decreases water loss and prevents pipe breaks.
Electrical conductivity is the most convenient method for testing RO water quality and membrane performance. Pure water is actually a poor electrical conductor. The amount of ionized substances (salts, acids, or bases) dissolved in water determines its conductivity. Normally, the vast majority of the dissolved minerals in tap, surface or ground water
This month, the Bloede Dam will be removed from the Lower Patapsco River near Ilchester, Maryland. The restoration is a one-of-a-kind natural experiment that will help test how relatively inexpensive drones can help scientists like me understand the integrity of streams and rivers.
Following a disaster like the back-to-back hurricanes that hit Texas, Florida, and Puerto Rico in 2017, water systems can become flooded and unable to provide safe drinking water to communities. EPA researchers recognized the need for portable water treatment systems that can quickly and cost-effectively provide safe drinking water to affected communities following a disaster.
Utility managers are continually challenged to run water systems in the most efficient manner. Reducing non-revenue water (NRW) is an important component for system efficiency. In many states, regulators are placing caps on NRW or requiring reductions in the amount of NRW. Accurate and well-planned flow measurement can be used to locate areas of water leakage and reduce NRW.
The water burbling down the hillside amid thick, green foliage, certainly looked like a stream.
As technology improves, contaminants can be measured in ever-smaller quantities. Pollutants formerly undetected are now becoming emerging contaminants of concern. Water utility managers must stay abreast of potential new regulations and plan for ways to address these contaminants.
As fresh water supplies dwindle, the use of sea water becomes more attractive. New technologies are making reverse osmosis (RO) a more effective and cost-efficient method for desalination. Utilizing an effective pretreatment system to improve the quality of the feed water traveling through the RO membranes will aid in improving the performance of your membrane system.
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.