DRINKING WATER

Bulk Emergency Chlorine Vapor Scrubber System Restored For Oklahoma City
Bulk Emergency Chlorine Vapor Scrubber System Restored For Oklahoma City

As a bulk emergency chlorine vapor scrubber system approached the end of its anticipated 20-year useful life, the city engaged Integrity Municipal Systems, LLC (IMS) inspected the equipment and proposed a system refurbishment plan that would ensure proper system performance and safe storage of the 30,000 gallons of corrosive caustic soda contained within it.

DRINKING WATER CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS

  • Top 10 Questions You Should Ask When Purchasing A Control Valve
    Top 10 Questions You Should Ask When Purchasing A Control Valve

    Automatic control valves, much like everything else we purchase these days, are not all created equal. Some fall into the high quality bracket with pricing to match, while others hover closer to the lower quality and price sensitive end of the scale. Unfortunately, when evaluating control valve prices, it is not always clear what you are being offered and what standards the valve actually meets. Here are a few questions to consider and ask the supplier to ensure you get years of trouble free operation that lasts longer than it takes the sales person to drive out of your parking lot!

  • Unique Hybrid AMR System Emerges In Wisconsin
    Unique Hybrid AMR System Emerges In Wisconsin

    Vision. Invention. Determination. It’s the stuff from which America was built. And, it’s alive and well in the rolling hills of Wisconsin where Wisconsin Public Service (WPS) defied conventional wisdom seven years ago by installing two separate AMR systems cost-effectively—forever changing the way U.S. utilities evaluate the business case for automatic meter reading (AMR) system installations.

  • Baja California, Mexico Addresses Water Scarcity, Partnering With Fluence
    Baja California, Mexico Addresses Water Scarcity, Partnering With Fluence

    When the government of Baja California, Mexico, declared a water emergency for the region of San Quintín in 2014, leaders knew they needed to find a solution to ensure residents a reliable, safe water source.

  • City Of Springfield, MO, Upgrades Disinfection System From Gas Chlorine To On‐Site Sodium Hypochlorite Generation
    City Of Springfield, MO, Upgrades Disinfection System From Gas Chlorine To On‐Site Sodium Hypochlorite Generation

    In April 2013, City Utilities started up three Microclor Model MC‐1500 skid systems, each rated at 1,500 pounds per day of free available chlorine.

  • General Electrochemistry
    General Electrochemistry

    All chemical processes involve the loss, gain, or redistribution of electrons on an atom or group of atoms. Electricity is the movement of electrons along a conductor. It is no wonder then that chemical changes can be made to occur by passing an electric current through a solution containing atoms or groups of atoms which will accept or give up electrons. Processes which pass an electrical current through a solution to effect chemical changes are called electrochemical processes. By PEPCON Systems

  • AMERICAN Valve And Pipe Groups Join Forces To Serve The Citizens Of Eastern Pennsylvania
    AMERICAN Valve And Pipe Groups Join Forces To Serve The Citizens Of Eastern Pennsylvania

    Together, AMERICAN Flow Control and AMERICAN Ductile Iron Pipe are providing a complete package of valves, hydrants and pipe for a new waterline to serve the eastern Pennsylvania communities of North Wales and Chalfont Borough.

  • Integrated Automation Solution Eases Water And Wastewater Operations
    Integrated Automation Solution Eases Water And Wastewater Operations

    The water and wastewater industries face challenges at every turn — from population growth to strict environmental and financial regulations to downsizing. The complex nature of both industries puts a great deal of pressure on plant operators, who typically tackle tasks manually. Download this datasheet to learn how integrated automation software delivers improved reliability and flexibility throughout the entire operation. 

  • How AMR Data Helps Water Utilities Avoid Missed Opportunities
    How AMR Data Helps Water Utilities Avoid Missed Opportunities

    The lack of IT insight on data collected from a technology-driven advanced meter reading (AMR) system could forfeit the best uses of the data. Indeed, it has become increasingly apparent to water utilities that interdepartmental collaboration between IT and operations is an essential component of the solutions-spending decision-making process. In this case study, you’ll learn how and why the District of Columbia’s Water and Sewer Authority (WASA) involved its IT team to use every facet of its AMR systems’ functionality and the benefits reaped as a result. 

  • Case Study: Steel Processor Wastewater Recycle

    The reuse of industrial wastewater is becoming increasingly common because of water shortages, environmental necessities, economic incentives, government mandates, and societal desires. By David Christophersen, Technical Support Manager, Veolia Water Technologies

  • New Polyethylene Piping System Provides Clean Water For 150,000 Residents
    New Polyethylene Piping System Provides Clean Water For 150,000 Residents

    Providing large cities with drinking water is never an easy task. Outdated systems can cause problems such as leakages or contaminations.

More Drinking Water Case Studies and White Papers

DRINKING WATER APPLICATION NOTES

  • The Basics: Monitoring Deionized Water

    Years ago, high purity water was used only in limited applications. Today, deionized (Dl) water has become an essential ingredient in hundreds of applications including: medical, laboratory, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, electronics manufacturing, food processing, plating, countless industrial processes, and even the final rinse at the local car wash.

  • Immediate pH Correction For Fluctuating Flow

    In a number of water, wastewater and industrial process applications, pH is one of the most critical and highly sensitive analytical measurements.  Examples of critical pH applications include: Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems in which a controlled feed of caustic solution is typically added to the feed stream in order to convert a portion of dissolved carbon dioxide into bicarbonate precipitate allowing for removal by the RO membrane. By Rafik H. Bishara, Steve Jacobs, and Dan Bell

  • Application Note: Miami Conservancy District Uses Nitrate Screening As Conjunctive Management Tool Tasked with monitoring a watershed covering nearly 4,000 square miles, almost 2,300 miles of rivers and streams, and a huge aquifer that provides drinking water for more than 1.2 million people, water quality monitoring specialists at the Miami Conservancy District (MCD) in Dayton, Ohio, have their hands full. By YSI
  • Chlorine Method For UKAS Accreditation And DWI Compliance At Welsh Water

    In 2013 the Drinking Water Inspectorate for England & Wales announced that water samples collected in England and Wales must be tested in a laboratory that meets specific standards for drinking water sampling and analysis. At the time of the new instruction, the chlorine method employed at the Welsh Water Bretton laboratory was unable to meet these requirements, notably for the prescribed limit of detection. This prompted the laboratory to investigate new analytical options for monitoring residual chlorine.

  • Dissolved Oxygen Measurement

    One of the most important measurements in the determination of the health of a body of water is its dissolved oxygen content. The quantity of dissolved oxygen in water is normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) by weight and is due to the solubility of oxygen from the atmosphere around us.

  • Determination Of Pesticide Residues In Honey, By An Automated QuEChERS Solution

    The QuEChERS (Quick-Easy-Cheap-Effective-Rugged-Safe) sample extraction method was developed for the determination of pesticide residues in agricultural commodities.

  • Control Of Active Chlorine Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) Of Drinking Water Using The THM Plus Method

    Determining trihalomethane levels using standard analytical methods requires expensive equipment and highly qualified personnel, which also means that analysis costs are very high. For these reasons, trihalomethane analysis poses a serious problem for companies that supply drinking water. Read the full application note to learn how two drinking water laboratories improved quality control of water delivered to end users.

  • Waste Technologies Transform Problems To Profit

    Anaerobic digestion processes that radically improve the quality of wastewater while delivering green energy extracted from biological waste streams are emerging as a profitable way for agricultural and food processing industries cope with the twin impact of drought and pollution challenges.

  • Non-Contact Radar Level Meter Improves Reactor Vessel Measurement

    A North Carolina-based specialty chemical manufacturer, a major producer of insect repellent, was looking for a better way to measure the liquid level in its glass-lined agitated reactor. The company uses a number of complex technologies to manufacture sebacates, adipates, isophthalates, catalysts, alkyds, and other natural and renewable chemistries based on castor and citrates.

  • Network Monitors Water Quality In Shale Gas Drilling Region High-pressure injection of water, sand, and chemicals that fracture shale deposits deep underground to free trapped natural gas is employed by drillers tapping the Marcellus shale beds, a geologic deposit that stretches from central New York to Virginia and contains gas believed to be worth hundreds of billions of dollars. By YSI
More Drinking Water Application Notes

DRINKING WATER PRODUCTS

ETS-UV™ For Drinking Water ETS-UV™ For Drinking Water

Drinking water facilities are under pressure to do more with less. Public safety and water quality cannot be compromised so it's important to incorporate solutions that are proven to perform. A number of ETS-UV™ disinfection systems have been validated by an independent third party for drinking water in accordance with the US EPA Design Guidance Manual and NSF/ANSI Standard 61.

Instrumentation: OPTIFLEX Guided Radar Level Instrumentation: OPTIFLEX Guided Radar Level
Guided Radar (TDR) Level Meter for distance, level and volume of liquids, liquid interface, pastes and solids
IntelliCAL Conductivity Probe IntelliCAL Conductivity Probe

IntelliCAL™ CDC401 is a digital, graphite, 4-pole conductivity probe. The standard version is available with a 3 or 1 meter cable and is intended for laboratory use.

MEMCOR® XS - Submerged Membrane System MEMCOR® XS - Submerged Membrane System

The Memcor® XS is a treatment unit which includes all equipment necesary to operate on a single skid.

TrojanUVSwift™SC — Drinking Water Disinfection System TrojanUVSwift™SC — Drinking Water Disinfection System

The TrojanUVSwift™SC offers a comprehensive and advanced suite of bioassay validations, with models having undergone rigorous USEPA, DVGW and ÖNORM certification using multiple organisms and encompassing a wide dose range.

ACTIFLO® MEM ACTIFLO® MEM

The Kruger ACTIFLO® MEM process combines a high-rate clarification system followed by an ultrafiltration membrane system, therefore assuming system-wide responsibility for pretreatment and membrane.

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LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER

  • How To Combat Coal Ash In Power Plant Wastewater Streams
    How To Combat Coal Ash In Power Plant Wastewater Streams

    Unbeknownst to many, coal ash is one of the most prolific industrial wastes affecting wastewater quality in the country, with more than 100 hundred million tons produced each year. And treating for the byproduct is paramount, with health concerns and stringent regulations in place governing its removal.

  • The Fall Of Water Quality: Blame It On The Leaves
    The Fall Of Water Quality: Blame It On The Leaves

    As sweater weather approaches, it’s a good time to revisit a USGS report from last year highlighting the importance of leaf removal for keeping phosphorus and nitrogen out of urban stormwater.

  • How To Know It’s Time To Replace Your RO Membrane
    How To Know It’s Time To Replace Your RO Membrane

    Reverse osmosis, or RO, is one of the finest technologies to purify water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS) levels of more than 500 ppm. Reverse osmosis plant exporters explain the technology as a separation technology where dissolved and invisible impurities in water are separated with the help of semi-permeable membrane or RO membrane that works under high pressure.

  • Can This 'Supermolecule' Solve The PPCP Problem?
    Can This 'Supermolecule' Solve The PPCP Problem?

    Research from the UK has identified a “supermolecule” capable of seeking out and eliminating trace pharmaceuticals that contaminate water supplies.

  • New Study Reveals Gaps In The Methods Used To Assess Chemicals In Oilfield Wastewater
    New Study Reveals Gaps In The Methods Used To Assess Chemicals In Oilfield Wastewater

    A new study led by researchers with Colorado School of Mines exposes limitations with the current methods used to detect chemicals in oilfield wastewater and offers solutions to help regulators make better decisions for managing this waste stream.

  • 4 Steps For Controlling Water Loss At Small Utilities
    4 Steps For Controlling Water Loss At Small Utilities

    The bigger water utilities have the resources, but small utilities face many of the same problems — namely failing pipeline infrastructure and water loss. So what are the solutions and best practices within small utilities’ grasp? One small utility shared its successful approach to controlling water loss as guidance for those with similar struggles.

More Drinking Water Features

DRINKING WATER VIDEOS

Expanded Version-Jason 3-Continuing Decades Of Ocean Surface Measurements

Did you know satellites can measure Earth’s oceans from space? The Jason-3 satellite, set to launch in July 2015, will collect critical sea surface height data, adding to a satellite data record going back to 1992.

Ensuring Freshwater Sustainability: Mapping Groundwater From The Air Ensuring Freshwater Sustainability: Mapping Groundwater From The Air

Stanford Earth’s Rosemary Knight recently spearheaded a project to map underground freshwater resources and forecast the intrusion of saltwater into aquifers beneath the California coastal town of Marina.

What Is A Combined Sewer Overflow?

How does a combined sewer work? A representative from the Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District (NEORSD) takes 60 seconds to draw a combined sewer and why they matter.

Water In The Balance Water In The Balance

How researchers at UC Merced are developing a better understanding of the three sources of water upon which California depends in order to adapt to the effects of environmental changes and make better use of this most precious of our natural resources.

Science Safeguards Drinking Water From Harmful Algal Blooms

Toxins from harmful algal blooms are increasingly contaminating source waters, as well as the drinking water treatment facilities that source waters supply. EPA researchers are helping the treatment facilities find safe, cost effective ways to remove the toxins and keep your drinking water safe.

More Drinking Water Videos

ABOUT DRINKING WATER

In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:

  1. Source water for a community’s drinking water supply
  2. Drinking water treatment of source water
  3. Distribution of treated drinking water to consumers

Drinking Water Sources

Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater. 

Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.

Drinking Water Treatment

Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.

There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.

The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.

The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.

During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.

Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.

Drinking Water Distribution

Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.

A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.

Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.