With its red rock and steep cliffs and canyons, the terrain of Washington County, Utah, is breathtaking and is one of the most geologically diverse areas in the world. This location, however, also lends itself to drought. It is the driest county in the state, receiving only an estimated eight inches of rainfall a year in its major population centers. Compare this to other U.S. counties that receive an average of 39 inches of rainfall annually.
DRINKING WATER CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
Benefits Of Off-Line Calibration Of pH And ORP Meters
One of the most commonly used measurements in the water and wastewater industry is pH. A measurement of how acid or alkaline a substance is, a pH reading can instantaneously indicate a problem with the water. Another common and useful measurement is oxidation-reduction potential (ORP). Treatment facilities use ORP sensors to optimize disinfection and biological nutrient removal processes.
Simpler “Smart Water”: A Paradigm Shift For AMI Deployment
As municipal water utilities face relentless financial pressure — with consumers who oppose rate increases at one end of the spectrum and a crisis of aging infrastructure at the other — “smart water” is becoming an imperative. Driving adoption of the technology on a widespread scale requires simplicity and cost certainty, both of which can be found in newer network as a service (NaaS) models for advanced metering infrastructure (AMI).
Optimize Energy And Resource Usage
Through the implementation of a WAGES (Water, Air, Gas, Electricity and Steam) monitoring solution, a brewery was able to optimize energy and resource usage while boosting capacity to meet the demands of U.S. customers. Water usage costs were reduced by 28%; the brewery’s carbon footprint was reduced creating a savings of $2 million/year from CO2 recovery; compressed air usage was reduced by 15%; and fuel oil costs were reduced by $34,000.
How The Chloramination Curve Should Be Shaping Your Disinfection Process
The rate at which chlorine residual occurs when ammonia is added to or present in the water during chloramination follows a different course than straight chlorination. Plotting that course is known as the chloramination curve, or breakpoint chlorination curve. While the concept is complex, understanding the curve and its implications can go a long way toward preventing quality problems in the water distribution system.
Where’d All The Water Go? The Case For Consumption Monitoring
Attempting to control water losses within their own infrastructure is only half the battle for water treatment and distribution organizations. To maximize water conservation, they need to involve their customers as well. Here are several ways public and private water utilities can spur internal and external changes in consumption monitoring to improve valuable water-asset management.
Choosing The Right Water Disinfection
In the mid-to-late 1800s, chlorine had been used sporadically to help control infection in hospitals and drinking water. Common water treatment did not start in the U.S. until the early twentieth century when increasing cases of waterborne illnesses prompted many large cities to begin large scale filtration of water supplies.
Taste and Odor Compounds in Drinking Water (Fact Sheet)
The primary sources of taste and odor problems in drinking water are algae and bacteria.
Does The Risk Of Legionnaire’s Disease Rise When There’s Lead In Your Water?
Ongoing monitoring shows that lead levels in Flint, Michigan’s water are dropping and getting closer to meeting federal safety standards. That’s some much-needed positive news for the community. But there’s still work to be done.
Taiwan Mandates Water Reclamation For Economic Sustainability
As a leading global supplier of semiconductors and other related IT components, access to a consistent supply of clean water is essential in Taiwan for sustaining a growing economy. However, in 2015, the country experienced one of the worst droughts in its history. Combined with frequently occurring typhoons that hamper the availability of clean water, this sparked the government to implement countermeasures immediately. Read the full case study to learn more.
Preparing For Lead-Service-Line Inventory And Replacement Requirements
With all the new facets of proposed Lead and Copper Rule revisions (LCRR) announced by the U.S. EPA in October of 2019, any water utility that has not yet started making preparations is at risk of being non-compliant by the time the new rules are put into effect. Use the accompanying links to improve understanding of those requirements and the process of conducting lead-service-line (LSL) inventories and replacements.
DRINKING WATER APPLICATION NOTES
Leak Detection Using Conductivity
Virtually all industries from food and beverage to chemical processing use heat exchangers, condensers,or jacketed vessels. Leakage of the process into the cooling water represents a loss of product and can be a source of fouling or corrosion in the cooling water system.
Application Note: Busseron Creek Watershed Partnership Addresses Concerns In A Rural Watershed As with other watershed organizations, the Busseron Creek Watershed Partnership (BCWP) exists because of surface water quality degradation. In this case, those waters drain 163,231 acres of a watershed that crosses the boundaries of Vigo, Clay, Green, and Sullivan counties in West- Central Indiana. By YSI
Irrigation Technology In Agriculture: How New Technologies Overcome Challenges
As the world’s population continues to increase at a fast pace, more food and water will be needed to sustain humanity. In the past 50 years, we have tripled our need for water and food, and there are no signs of this trend slowing down. As a result of these conditions, smart, innovative agricultural practices are needed now more than ever. Technology can, and already does, aid agriculture in innumerable ways. One prominent part of agriculture that can use technological innovation to increase efficiency and effectiveness is irrigation.
Bringing Efficiency And New Confidence To BOD₅ Analysis
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) analysis is the test everyone loves to hate—and for compelling reasons.
Accurately Measuring Network Leakage
The pressures of supplying a growing global population mean that the world’s water supplies need to be managed more closely than ever.
Application Note: Low-Flow Sampling Of Water Quality Parameters Used In Determining Groundwater Stability In April 1996, the U.S. EPA developed and published a document entitled Low-Flow (Minimal Drawdown) Ground-Water Sampling Procedures. The document states that “the most common ground water purging and sampling methodology is to purge wells using bailers or high speed pumps to remove 3 to 5 casing volumes followed by sample collection.” Adverse impacts can occur through this method affecting sample quality by increasing levels of turbidity. These problems can often be mitigated by using low-flow purging and sampling to reduce sampling-induced turbidity. By YSI
Chinese Chemical Plant Optimizes Water Treatment By Replacing Double Pass RO With A Single Pass RO And 3M Liqui-Cel Contactor System
Electrodeionization (EDI) is widely used in many industrial water treatment systems throughout the world. In order to maximize the operating stability and life expectancy of an EDI system they were often designed with double pass RO using caustic injection pretreatment.
Removal Of Chloramines With Activated Carbon
In order to reduce the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts in drinking water, alternative disinfectant use has become increasingly widespread. Monochloramine is a leading alternative disinfectant that offers advantages for municipal water. This tech brief details the removal of monochloramine using activated carbon.
Phosphate In Groundwater And Surface Water: A Rapid And Reliable Determination Method Using The Photometric Spectroquant® Test
Phosphorus is an essential element for organisms and plants. In natural, uncontaminated waters, it occurs as organically bound phosphate, condensed phosphates or as orthophosphate — often referred to by its chemical formula PO4-P. The small quantity of phosphorus present in natural waters does not promote the growth of plants. However, a rise in the concentration of phosphorus results in the proliferation of algae, which leads to the eutrophication of the water body.
Determination Of Pesticide Residues In Honey, By An Automated QuEChERS Solution
The QuEChERS (Quick-Easy-Cheap-Effective-Rugged-Safe) sample extraction method was developed for the determination of pesticide residues in agricultural commodities.
LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER
EPA Researchers Collaborate With States To Assess The Health Of The Coastal Waters Of The Great Lakes
We all depend on clean water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. To measure the ability of water bodies to provides these resources, EPA conducts national surveys of their ecological, biological, and recreational conditions. Information from these surveys helps states determine the number of lakes, the length of streams, and the area of wetlands, nearshore waters, or estuaries meeting water quality benchmarks. The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is one of these surveys. It has been conducted every five years since 2010 and covers the nearshore waters of the Great Lakes. EPA is conducting the NCCA this summer.
Army Corps' Data Driven To Improve Coastal Projects Leading Into 2020 Atlantic Hurricane Season
In a hotel conference room on Long Island, New York, a team of experts are processing data and information on computers. Alongside them is a large display monitor screen that's projecting the information.
Idrica CEO Jaime Barba Shares The Roots And Importance Of Utility Digital Transformation
Idrica is the result of a decade-long digital transformation of processes and infrastructures at the Spanish water utility, Global Omnium, which has been around for 130 years. New equipment was needed on a large scale, such as sensor networks, so GoAigua smart water technology was created to provide real-time data integration from all processes and a holistic view to help boost efficiency.
Optimal Ultrafiltration Uses For Beverage And Dairy Companies
When you’re sipping on a cold soda or snacking on a creamy piece of cheese, you probably don’t really think about what went into making your food or beverage. Aside from the automated production-line machines, one of the most important things that goes into the making of any soda, juice, wheel of cheese, or gallon of milk is water. Producing beverages and dairy products uses substantial amounts of water within production processes.
EPANET 2.2.0: An EPA/Water Community Collaboration
Protecting and maintaining drinking water distribution systems is crucial to ensuring high quality drinking water. The purpose of a water distribution system is to deliver water to consumers with appropriate quality, quantity, and pressure, from its source to the point of use. The optimal management of these systems requires data and information, including a digital model of the water system depicting its pipes, valves, pumps, tanks, and other attributes.
ABOUT DRINKING WATER
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
- Source water for a community’s drinking water supply
- Drinking water treatment of source water
- Distribution of treated drinking water to consumers
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.