As water distribution infrastructure ages, the potential for leaks grows and the need for condition-driven asset management increases proportionally. As with so many other aspects of water operations, planning ahead is key. Good system diagnosis using noninvasive procedures provides an accurate and cost-effective assessment of distribution system integrity, just as noninvasive monitoring of heartbeat, pulse, and blood pressure plays an important role in human health.
As some of you may have heard, LuminUltra has partnered with Microbe Detectives to offer DNA testing services to the drinking water and wastewater industries. So “Who’s on First?” (pun intended); simply put, the partnership’s combined technologies tell you who is in a given water or wastewater sample, and how much is in that sample.
Satisfying water purification and volume requirements at the treatment plant or wellhead are not the only cost-performance impacts on physical operations. There are other variables related to distribution operations that affect head loss and energy costs throughout a distribution system. Here are several strategies for identifying, calculating, and minimizing head loss.
Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are widely used in potable water, wastewater, and industrial applications. However, a major issue in the application of RO membrane technology for desalination and wastewater reclamation is membrane fouling. It limits operating flux, decreases water production, and increases power consumption. Membrane fouling also increases the need for RO plants to perform periodical membrane CIP procedure. These problems decrease process efficiency, increase operation cost, and raise environmental issues related to the CIP solutions disposal.
Any Reverse Osmosis System is only as good as the Pre-filtration System protecting it. Pre-filtration is no place to scrimp when it comes to sizing, quality, efficiency and performance.
A potable water plant in Eastern Angelina County, Texas, serves over 2,000 rural customers.
The City of Palm Coast, FL was experiencing elevated color in the concentrate stream being directed to the lime softening facility to recover as drinking water. In an effort to meet secondary color standards at the lime plant, this water quality issue limited the volume of the concentrate able to be recovered.
A pharmaceutical manufacturing plant located in Sedom, Israel faced challenging environmental conditions including low humidity, temperatures exceeding 105 degrees Fahrenheit and limited water supplies.
The lack of IT insight on data collected from a technology-driven advanced meter reading (AMR) system could forfeit the best uses of the data. Indeed, it has become increasingly apparent to water utilities that interdepartmental collaboration between IT and operations is an essential component of the solutions-spending decision-making process. In this case study, you’ll learn how and why the District of Columbia’s Water and Sewer Authority (WASA) involved its IT team to use every facet of its AMR systems’ functionality and the benefits reaped as a result.
Water utility operators are increasingly challenged by scrutiny and regulation on disinfection by-product (DBP) levels while trying to manage ever increasing coagulant costs in a tight budget environment.
In the 1990s, the City of Wichita, KS, developed a water supply plan that included creating a sustainable water supply through the year 2050. The key component of the plan is recharging the large aquifer that lies under the region with 100 MGD of water from the Little Arkansas River.
Many factors affect performance of a pH electrode. When performance degrades, it is always a challenge for the analyst to identify the cause. Common troubleshooting procedures, which include evaluation of slope, electrode drift, time response, and accuracy, take considerable time. By Thermo Fisher Scientific
Pressure reducing valves (PRVs) are used throughout water distribution systems to reduce pipeline pressure to a predetermined set point. This decreases water loss and prevents pipe breaks.
Today’s drinking water plants have many challenges to meet as they produce water for a fast-growing and increasingly demanding population.
Now compatible with the Hach sc100 Controller, the FilterTrak 660 sc Nephelometer connects as a ‘plug and play’ sensor with the universal, dualchannel controller that features an inherent power supply.
One of the most important measurements in the determination of the health of a body of water is its dissolved oxygen content. The quantity of dissolved oxygen in water is normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) by weight and is due to the solubility of oxygen from the atmosphere around us.
Electrical conductivity is the most convenient method for testing RO water quality and membrane performance. Pure water is actually a poor electrical conductor. The amount of ionized substances (salts, acids, or bases) dissolved in water determines its conductivity. Normally, the vast majority of the dissolved minerals in tap, surface or ground water
Nitrate is present in high levels in wastewater due in part to the high nitrates present in human sewage but also from some types of industrial effluent entering the municipal sewer system.
Some wastewater applications require chlorine residuals greater than can be effectively monitored using DPD due to the oxidation of the Wurster dye to a colorless Imine. Such applications include industrial wastewater processes that inherently have a high chlorine demand thereby requiring a more robust monitoring method.
The Real UV254 'P' series portable meters can be used to measure UV transmittance (UVT) in a number of situations, and are especially beneficially when working with small UV disinfection systems. The following cases outline two situations in which Real Tech's portable meters are invaluable.
Organic carbon compounds vary greatly. In fact, one of the first lessons in most introductory Organic Chemistry courses explains that the number of possible carbon compounds is virtually infinite due to carbon’s ability to form long, chain-like molecules. While chromatographic methods like gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are able to make quantitative determinations for specific compounds, the user must first know which specific compounds to look for.
As if they don’t already face enough challenges, water treatment plants (WTPs) in the western U.S. have yet another potential problem lurking in their source water waiting to blossom when they least expect it. This specific problem comes in the form of two invasive species: quagga mussels and zebra mussels.
Desert life depends on reliable access to water. In Namibia’s stark Namib Desert, where I spent 18 months doing research for my Ph.D., wildlife concentrates around natural springs. Increasingly, animals there also rely on man-made ponds intended for livestock.
While point level measuring approaches are regarded as simple and user-friendly, they lack the capabilities of more sophisticated continuous measuring instruments.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was applied to a circular water storage reservoir, proving invaluable for understanding hydraulic characteristics, developing a plan for mixing efficiency, and maintaining water quality.
AWWA’s 2018-19 president, David Rager, talks about personal priorities for his tenure and the long-range challenges the industry and his organization must strive to overcome.
Growing cities are generating higher volumes of wastewater and putting a strain on clean water supplies, calling for solutions that extract value from “waste” and ensure the sustainability of resources — with the added bonus, or imperative, of protecting the environment.
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.