PFOA (perfluorooctanic acid) and PFOS (perflurooctane sulfonate) are organic synthetic chemicals that have been used in manufacturing a multitude of industrial and consumer-based products including coatings, carpeting, and fire-fighting foams. Over several decades, they have contaminated the environment, specifically our drinking water sources, causing significant health concerns that recently prompted the EPA to take action.
DRINKING WATER CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
Leveraging Water Network Data For System Management Prioritization
KUB's water system has experienced 30 percent to 35 percent non-revenue water over the past 10 years; hard-to-find underground leaks are the big culprit. Reducing leaks improves customer service, increases operational efficiency, reduces expenses for chemicals and power, and has other benefits.
Water Utility Selects WEDECO Advanced Treatment Technologies To Purify Urban Runoff
In February 2010, the Dempsey E. Benton Water Treatment Plant (DEBWTP) added 16 million gallons per day (MGD) of capacity to the water utility operated by the city of Raleigh, North Carolina.
Defending Against Saltwater Intrusion
Are “ghost forests” a sign of things to come? Rising sea levels and superstorm tidal surges are already impacting coastal areas, with rising salinity levels affecting some drinking water sources. Coastal water utilities are not the only ones that have to worry about salinity, however, as high concentrations of winter storm road treatments, gas drilling, and mining can also generate elevated salinity levels in surface water sources.
Better CAPEX, OPEX Options For PFAS Treatment
The documented performance of ion exchange (IX) resins for treating per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) offers new opportunities for more practical solutions in many applications. IX has demonstrated its ability to reduce both capital and operating costs compared to the conventional granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment approach.
Fighting Back: 3 Tools To Combat Meter Tampering
Tampering with water meters is outright theft that costs everyone who plays by the rules. It’s what happens when consumers — end users, landlords, businesses, and in some cases even municipal employees with specialized knowledge of a water system — alter a device to avoid paying the cost of their actual usage. Putting a dent in the problem requires a multifaceted strategy.
Striking An Ideal Balance In WTP/WWTP Chlorine Dosing
For managing chlorine feed rates, automated chlorine analysis has always offered advantages over manual grab samples and feed adjustments. Today, chlorine analyzers connected to cloud-based systems for integrated instrument, data, and process management are bringing new continual-sampling insights to water and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs/WWTPs).
Update And Upgrade Of Ozone Dissolution System At Southwest Water Treatment Plant
The burden of the unavailability of replacement parts for the aging generators and the FBD basins' high maintenance motivated the Orlando Utilities Commission's Southwest Water Treatment Plant to update and upgrade the plant’s ozone system.
Roy Hill Iron Ore Optimizes Water Infrastructure Design And Operations For AUD 10 Billion Mining Facility
In the Pilbara region of Western Australia, 1,200 kilometers northeast of Perth, Roy Hill Iron Ore (Roy Hill) is developing an open pit, bulk mining facility capable of processing 55 megatons of iron ore annually. Set to be the country’s largest iron ore mining operation, the AUD 10 billion project includes a water supply and dewatering network spanning 300 square kilometers that needs continuous adapting to meet the changing mining and ore processing requirements over the 20-year life of the mine (LOM).
Is There A Correlation Between ATP And Other Traditional Microbiological Methods?
Perhaps the most common question that we’re asked is how our ATP tests correlate with traditional microbiological methods. Unsurprisingly, when people are used to getting their information in a certain way, they naturally want to know how a new method will stack up against it. However, the mechanisms of culture-based techniques and ATP analyses are completely different, and in many ways, so are the results they produce.
New Meters And AMR System Deliver Outstanding Revenue Savings And Improved Efficiencies In Ozark Mountain Region
Tri County Regional Water upgrades to Badger Meter E-Series® Ultrasonic meters and ORION® Classic (CE) automatic meter reading (AMR) solution.
DRINKING WATER APPLICATION NOTES
Lab Gas Sub-Metering Accuracy Improves With Thermal Flow Meters To Save Money
Facility administrators will find the advanced ST100 Series Thermal Mass Air/Gas Flow Meter from Fluid Components International (FCI) helps them improve the accuracy of specialty gas point of use and sub-metering operations to achieve accurate billing in their labs for better cost tracking and control.
Determination Of Pesticide Residues In Honey, By An Automated QuEChERS Solution
The QuEChERS (Quick-Easy-Cheap-Effective-Rugged-Safe) sample extraction method was developed for the determination of pesticide residues in agricultural commodities.
Degassing Boiler Feed Water in China with 3M™ Liqui-Cel™ Membrane Contactors
ShenLan Environment Inc. located in Shanghai, China uses 3M™ Liqui-Cel™ Membrane Contactors in their boiler feed water treatment systems. These systems realize lower operating costs with the added benefit of reducing the chemicals added to the boiler feed water.
Hydrant Pressure Monitoring Application Note
The simplicity of the compact, battery-powered Telog HPR-31 enables you to put it to work within minutes of unpacking. Once installed, the Telog HPR-31 measures water pressure at user programmable rates up to four samples per second with its internal pressure transducer. You can determine how often such data is summarized for reporting. The recorder computes any combination of minimum, average and maximum pressure measurement at each interval according to your selection of statistics and recording intervals. Recorded data may be gathered via an RS-232 connector using a handheld device or a laptop.
Application Note: YSI Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring And The IPSWATCH-EMPACT Program The Ipswich and Parker Rivers watersheds lie only a short distance north of Boston, MA. The first settlements in these watersheds began in the early 1600s. Since that time, residents have relied heavily on the natural resources of the Parker and Ipswich Rivers, their coastal estuaries and Plum Island Sound, which is known as the Great Marsh. This ecosystem has been designated and protected by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC).
Phosphate In Groundwater And Surface Water: A Rapid And Reliable Determination Method Using The Photometric Spectroquant® Test
Phosphorus is an essential element for organisms and plants. In natural, uncontaminated waters, it occurs as organically bound phosphate, condensed phosphates or as orthophosphate — often referred to by its chemical formula PO4-P. The small quantity of phosphorus present in natural waters does not promote the growth of plants. However, a rise in the concentration of phosphorus results in the proliferation of algae, which leads to the eutrophication of the water body.
Leak Detection Using Conductivity
Virtually all industries from food and beverage to chemical processing use heat exchangers, condensers,or jacketed vessels. Leakage of the process into the cooling water represents a loss of product and can be a source of fouling or corrosion in the cooling water system.
Removal Of Chloramines With Activated Carbon
In order to reduce the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts in drinking water, alternative disinfectant use has become increasingly widespread. Monochloramine is a leading alternative disinfectant that offers advantages for municipal water. This tech brief details the removal of monochloramine using activated carbon.
Wireless PRV Monitoring Application Note
Pressure reducing valves (PRVs) are used throughout water distribution systems to reduce pipeline pressure to a predetermined set point. This decreases water loss and prevents pipe breaks.
Free Chlorine Measurement In Drinking Water Treatment
Before water can be used as a safe and reliable source for drinking water, it must be properly treated. Since water is a universal solvent, it comes in contact with several different pathogens, some of which are potentially lethal, and inactivation is accomplished through chemical disinfection and mechanical filtration treatment. This treatment consists of coarse filtration to remove large objects and pre-treatment which includes disinfection using chlorine or ozone
LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER
U.S. Military Bases With Cancer-Linked Contaminated Water Are Undercounted Online
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of an estimated 5,000 man-made fluorinated chemicals that have been used, since the 1940s, in the manufacturing processes of various consumer products and industries. PFAS are widely used, especially because of their oil and water repellency and temperature and chemical resistance.
Mine Waste Dams Threaten The Environment, Even When They Don't Fail
Scars from large mining operations are permanently etched across the landscapes of the world. The environmental damage and human health hazards that these activities create may be both severe and irreversible.
Water Industry Responds To Proposed LCR Revisions
With more than 50,000 community water systems (CWS) in the U.S., it is amazing that only 285 individuals had logged public comments on the U.S. EPA’s proposed Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) Revisions by the February 12, 2020 deadline. Yet, what those respondents had to say could have a big impact on how we deal with lead in drinking water moving forward. Here is a cross-section of the industry’s response.
Putting Out The Fire: 50 Years Of Science To Protect America’s Water
2020 marks the 50th Anniversary of the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), giving us an opportunity to highlight how our science has played a critical role in helping the Agency meet its mission to safeguard public health and the environment.
The Improved Business Case For Membranes In Industrial Water Reuse
Membrane filtration can be a valuable tool in industrial operations by removing oils and solids that are generally not captured with other bulk separation methods. However, membranes have traditionally been limited by low throughputs, poor durability, and the inability to consistently achieve low residual oil levels. The good news is advanced membrane filtration technologies that promote efficient and economical water reuse are now available.
4 Benefits Of Electrocoagulation For Arsenic Removal From Water
In water and wastewater treatment, arsenic is classfied as a heavy metal. It is well known for its toxicity and it can cause numerous health problems in humans if consumed at high enough doses. Arsenic can affect the skin, liver, kidneys, bladder, and prostate as well as the nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, immune, and endocrine systems. Due to the many health risks associated with arsenic, the U.S. EPA has set the drinking water standard at 10 ppb as the maximum allowable concentration in drinking water. Therefore, this is the goal of all treatment systems for arsenic removal from water.
ABOUT DRINKING WATER
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
- Source water for a community’s drinking water supply
- Drinking water treatment of source water
- Distribution of treated drinking water to consumers
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.