Toray UF membrane modules were piloted over a fifteen-week period to help service the growing demand for clean water in southwest North Dakota. The outcome, as part of the Southwest Pipeline Project (SWPP), would be construction of the Oliver-Mercer-North Dunn (OMND) Water Treatment Plant.
The benefits of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) are well known in the water industry, but the public is not as aware of what AMI has to offer. With that in mind, industry experts are looking for ways to educate customers about the value provided by AMI.
The source water in Cudahy, a city just south of Milwaukee, is susceptible to contamination and significantly impacted by agricultural and urban runoff. After a Cryptosporidium outbreak in the early 1990s, improved water quality was vital. A UV solution proved to be the best fit for protection against the contaminant within a restrictive space.
California water reuse program provides multiple benefits, serving as a model for other municipalities.
When Northshore Utility District began searching for a new meter reading solution in 2006, achieving a strong return on investment was a critical factor in its selection process.
The estimated $30-million West Side Loop 48-inch Replacement Project is one of three capital projects being conducted by the Cobb County-Marietta Water Authority to provide additional water to western Cobb County and Paulding County in Georgia. For the project, a 48-year-old, 36-inch pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP) that recently failed is being replaced with 48-inch ductile iron pipe.
Desalination Technology Transforms 650 m3/day of Abused Industrial Wastewater
The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) wanted an environmentally friendly method for disposing of the greywater generated by the 336 shower buildings at their showcase camping and training facility, the Summit Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve (SBR) in West Virginia.
This municipality disinfects 1-1.5 million gallons per day of drinking water, and is currently transitioning from a small system serving <10,000 people to a large system serving >10,000 people. Chlorine gas was used as the primary disinfectant for the raw water entering the plant.
Hermanus on South Africa’s Cape Whale Coast is a tourist hotspot. Just two hours outside of Cape Town, the number of holiday complexes being built along this idyllic coast is increasing. The problem is that the city is in a water scarce area. The answer lies in an upgrade of the Preekstoel water treatment plant.
Hypochlorite has some significant environmental concerns associated with DBPs and residual toxicity.
In 2013 the Drinking Water Inspectorate for England & Wales announced that water samples collected in England and Wales must be tested in a laboratory that meets specific standards for drinking water sampling and analysis. At the time of the new instruction, the chlorine method employed at the Welsh Water Bretton laboratory was unable to meet these requirements, notably for the prescribed limit of detection. This prompted the laboratory to investigate new analytical options for monitoring residual chlorine.
Many are turning to UV as an effective barrier to enable the reuse of wastewater, for indirect reuse, and aquifer recharge.
One of the most popular uses for the Telog Hydrant Pressure Recorders (HPRs) is to monitor and analyze customer pressure complaints. The HPR is ideally suited for this application because it is rugged, highly portable, and can give a complete, time stamped picture of the pressure differential between the customer’s water pressure and the water pressure being delivered by the utility.
The HR-E LCD encoder has a 9-digit Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) to show consumption, flow and alarm information. The display automatically toggles between 9-digit and 6-digit consumption, rate of flow and meter model.
Organic carbon compounds vary greatly. In fact, one of the first lessons in most introductory Organic Chemistry courses explains that the number of possible carbon compounds is virtually infinite due to carbon’s ability to form long, chain-like molecules. While chromatographic methods like gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are able to make quantitative determinations for specific compounds, the user must first know which specific compounds to look for.
Facility administrators will find the advanced ST100 Series Thermal Mass Air/Gas Flow Meter from Fluid Components International (FCI) helps them improve the accuracy of specialty gas point of use and sub-metering operations to achieve accurate billing in their labs for better cost tracking and control.
Water quality laboratories across the nation are faced with both a rising level of water quality awareness amongst the general public, as well as rising costs in water quality monitoring. As a result, laboratories are looking for more efficient ways to provide higher quality monitoring.
In the fields of water and waste water technology, submersible pumps represent a viable economic and technical alternative to conventional, dry-installed pumps. In particular, they offer a number of handling advantages during maintenance and installation work, a factor of increasing importance in times of general staff cutbacks by operating companies.
Rapid industrialization and tightened water quality standards are leading to an increase in global spending on water quality monitoring instrumentation. Spending in this area is projected to grow from $2.5 billion in 2014 to $3.6 billion by 2020, with some 25 percent spent on new, less expensive water quality monitoring sensors that deliver on-the-spot measurements.
A popular weed killer appears to be threatening consumer health through drinking water supplies. As knowledge around this threat grows, treatment operations should consider their technology options.
Everyone must answer to someone — even the rule-makers themselves. While it may seem to water and wastewater utilities that the U.S. EPA is the end of the line, there is yet another government agency that holds the EPA's feet to the fire.
When it comes to the history and DNA of a city, new buildings have nothing on century-old ones. Yet the reverse can be said in regard to water and energy efficiency. Older buildings reflect the culture and history of a community, but typically are highly inefficient.
San Francisco’s water and wastewater utility has developed a holistic approach to resource management, sustainable infrastructure, and reuse. What can other utilities learn from its program?
A water recycling project in Colorado combines natural processes and cutting-edge technology to ensure drought security for its residents.
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.