Traditionally when it comes to analysis, there have been two ways to measure pH. The first is the inexpensive method of using test strips, which requires little time or training. The second requires the use of a pH electrode or probe and because it requires more training, time, and equipment, is far more expensive. However, a hybrid application is now available that brings together the ease of use of test strips with technology to ensure preciseness.
To ensure treated water complied with the most stringent drinking water standards, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (State 2 DBPR), the City of Cambridge, MA, WTP decided to implement a robust multibarrier treatment solution.
For most of the United States, we’ve reached the time of year where Americans desire to maintain a perfectly green lawn starts to be tested by the warmer and dryer summer months. From the water industry’s perspective, it’s staggering just how many billions of gallons of treated water ends up being sprayed across our hallowed front and back yards in maintaining a full and aesthetically-pleasing lawn.
The Jimo, China, municipal wastewater plant was originally designed to treat a combination of municipal and textile wastewater (120,000 m3/d) with Class IB effluent limits for BOD, COD, ESS, TN, NH3-N and TP.
STX Heavy Industries, a Korean EPC, recently implemented a flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system at a coal-fired power plant in Chile in order to comply with the country's strict environmental regulations. The FGD process requires large amounts of high-quality water. STX.
The Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer — a primary water source for small towns, rural water systems and farm irrigation in eastern Arkansas — is running dry. According to the Army Corps of Engineers’ website, a project study in the mid-1980s pointed out, and further studies have since shown, the region’s groundwater resources are rapidly shrinking.
The reuse of industrial wastewater is becoming increasingly common because of water shortages, environmental necessities, economic incentives, government mandates, and societal desires. By David Christophersen, Technical Support Manager, Veolia Water Technologies
Most flowmeters are delivering perfectly accurate results when pumping water. But when you add rocks or sand to the mix, this can figuratively muddy the waters and create noise that leads to instability and false readings
By incorporating Membrana UF and Gas Transfer Membrane (GTM) a resort customer was able to reduce the risk of contaminating its cooling water and protect other system components from corrosion. The compact systems exceeded performance expectations and reduced maintenance and operating costs while maximizing the available space.
Proper removal of organic and inorganic contaminants from water used in consumption or manufacturing is the crucial component of the intended outcome.
Providing large cities with drinking water is never an easy task. Outdated systems can cause problems such as leakages or contaminations.
Virtually all industries from food and beverage to chemical processing use heat exchangers, condensers,or jacketed vessels. Leakage of the process into the cooling water represents a loss of product and can be a source of fouling or corrosion in the cooling water system.
Before water can be used as a safe and reliable source for drinking water, it must be properly treated. Since water is a universal solvent, it comes in contact with several different pathogens, some of which are potentially lethal, and inactivation is accomplished through chemical disinfection and mechanical filtration treatment. This treatment consists of coarse filtration to remove large objects and pre-treatment which includes disinfection using chlorine or ozone
Nitrate is present in high levels in wastewater due in part to the high nitrates present in human sewage but also from some types of industrial effluent entering the municipal sewer system.
Water in petrochemical feedstocks can cause problems for processors. Freezing of pipe lines and valves and poisoning of expensive catalysts are just a few examples.
Process design in water treatment is historically confined to proprietary or user-defined spreadsheets on a unit operation basis, with users manually adding results from each unit process upstream into the next operation.
A static headspace method was developed using Teledyne Tekmar automated headspace vial samplers to meet the method requirements of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau of the US Department of the Treasury (TTB) method SSD: TM:2001 for testing fusel alcohols in alcoholic beverages.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic compounds found naturally in the environment. PAHs are monitored by the US Environmental Protection Agency due to their carcinogenic characteristics.
According to population projections from the U.S. Census Bureau, millennials are expected to become the nation's largest living adult generation by 2019. 37 percent of millennials were homeowners in 2015 and this number continues to rise, making them a significant fraction of a utilities' customer base.
When water demand declines, water quality and utility budgets can suffer. When the situation arose in Akron, OH, a smart solution emerged.
If I were asked to describe the makeup of the Water Online and Water Innovations audience, I could say it’s a mix of engineers and operators focusing on clean and/or wastewater processes within municipal or industrial settings. But that wouldn’t tell the whole story, because you are much more than that — you are caretakers of our planet’s most valuable resource.
When the California hexavalent chromium maximum contaminant level (MCL) comes back in 2019, treatment technology improvements will have already significantly lowered the cost of compliance.
The City of Dallas captured an additional 600,000 gallons of billable water in four months.
Onshore crude oil production has increased in the United States over the past few years. Oil producers, specifically the North Dakota Pipeline Authority and the Bakken Shale field producers are transporting crude oil by rail and train to both the East and West Coast oil refineries. While rail tends to be one of the safer and more efficient ways of transporting crude oil, there is still a risk of a spill. Oil spills are threats to both ground and surface waters, which can ultimately impact drinking water.
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.