The Tri-County Water Authority (TCWA) was formed in 1991 as a not-for-profit water utility serving portions of Jackson, Cass and Bates counties, Missouri. When the system was first established, about half of the pipe installed were ductile iron and half were plastic PVC. Today, the authority’s 120 miles of pipe are approximately 75% ductile iron and 25% plastic PVC.
DRINKING WATER CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
Drinking Water Disinfection – A History And Improved Monitoring Techniques
In many countries we take for granted the availability and reliability of safe drinking water. A recent trip outside of the US reminded me of this fact when I saw notices in the hotel rooms stating the drinking water met specific standards and was safe to drink however, my friends from the country emphatically warned me to not drink the water.
Cation Conductivity Monitoring In Cycling Plants - A New Approach
In recent years, there has been increased pressure to reduce start-up times for all units, particularly combined cycle units. Most of the combined cycles in the late 1990’s were designed to be base loaded due to the low price of natural gas at the time. By Randy C. Turner, Technical Director, Swan Analytical USA
Using Earth Observation Data To Identify Areas Of Infrastructure At Risk Of Failure And Intelligently Deploy Ground-Based Detection Devices
Henry County Water Authority in Georgia, USA, had been relying on acoustic leak detection for eleven years, working with a dedicated leak detection company that uses noise loggers and other acoustic listening devices to find leaks. However, these traditional ground-based methods of monitoring Henry County’s extensive water catchments and infrastructure have their limitations.
Decoding Ozone Disinfection
Disinfection is by far the most common use for ozone in water and wastewater treatment applications. The basics of ozone dosing / sizing have been discussed at length in any number of our previous articles. In this article, we are trying to provide better insight into decoding the why’s and how’s of your next ozone disinfection application. By Louis LeBrun, PE Thoram Charanda
Water Utility Selects WEDECO Advanced Treatment Technologies To Purify Urban Runoff
In February 2010, the Dempsey E. Benton Water Treatment Plant (DEBWTP) added 16 million gallons per day (MGD) of capacity to the water utility operated by the city of Raleigh, North Carolina.
Stinkin' Drinkin' Water No More: Oxidation/Filtration Removes Hydrogen Sulfide
AdEdge Water Technologies, LLC was contacted by Aqua Utilities Florida to provide a hydrogen sulfide removal system for the Lake Josephine community, located in Highlands County, FL. The treatment goal for the system was to reduce the levels of hydrogen sulfide to the nondetectable odor threshold of <0.05 mg/l.
How Harmful Algal Blooms Can Affect Your Water Treatment Plant
Headlines in 2018 were dominated by the red tide along Florida’s Gulf Coast, which persisted for months, causing human respiratory illnesses, the deaths of dozens of Florida’s beloved dolphins and manatees, and hundreds of millions of dollars in lost tourism revenue and cleanup costs. Here are insights on how to forestall becoming the next city to make national headlines related to harmful algal blooms.
Ultrapure Boiler Water Production From Municipal Wastewater
The term wastewater can be applied to a wide range of water sources from municipal sewage to storm runoff to industrial discharge water. By Michael Sheedy, Vice President of Technology and George Di Falco, Marketing Communications, Eco-Tec Inc.
Local Support Saves Time And Money
At a water treatment plant that provides drinking water for distribution to a large area of customers, a contractor decided to switch to SITRANS FM MAG 5100W flowmeters. A local representative saved a the contractor time and money by recognizing the need for the magmeter to be isolated from the piping protection before startup, which also saved the customer from added downtime.
Philippines Potable Water System Improvement Project Uses Filter Underdrain Blocks To Improve Backwash Efficiency
Founded in 1997, the Manila Water Company (MWC) serves the potable water needs of more than five million residents of the Philippines capital and cities to the east. The company serves as the private partner in a public-private partnership with the Philippines government in operating the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System for Metro Manila’s East Zone.
DRINKING WATER APPLICATION NOTES
Application Note: Turbidity Monitoring In Drinking Water Treatment Plants
Turbidity, or the relative clarity of a liquid (in this case drinking water), is caused by the presence of microscopic particles such as clay, silt, or other fine undissolved matter
Technical Note: Using 3M Liqui-Cel Membrane Contactors To Solve Resistivity Problems In A High Purity Water Loop
Pureflow, Inc. is a Southeastern-based expert in designing complete water treatment systems as well as providing value-added solutions for fixing operational issues in existing systems. Pureflow teamed up with Membrana to help solve an operational issue at one of their customer’s facilities. By Membrana
Ion Exchange Resins Reduce Pollution From Refineries
A single operational oil and gas refinery produces millions of gallons of contaminated wastewater a year, leading to environmental pollution concerns. Ion exchange resins are a metal- and ion-removal solution to help clean this wastewater for plant reuse or safe disposal. This application guide explains how resins can be used to demineralize refinery water in process, boiler, and cooling water applications.
Activated Carbon And Adsorption Of Trichloroethylene (TCE) And Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)
Trichloroethylene (TCE) and Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are two of the most common solvents that contaminate groundwater supplies in the United States. Both solvents see frequent use in the extraction of fat, in the textile industry, in the production of various pharmaceutical and chemical products. TCE is also used as a degreaser from fabricated metal parts, and PCE serves as a component of aerosol dry-cleaning solvents.
1,2,3-Trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP) Application Brief
Previously TCP has been used as as a degreaser, paint remover, and cleaning agent. Currently TCP is utilized as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of various organic chemicals.
Determination Of Pesticide Residue In Vegetables
QuEChERS is a Quick-Easy-Cheap-Effective-Rugged-Safe extraction method that has been developed for the determination of pesticide residues in agricultural commodities.
Determination Of EN15662:2008 - Determination Of Pesticide Residue In Food Of Plant Origin, By An Automated QuEChERS Solution
Pesticide residue laboratories are required to undertake analyses of an ever increasing number of samples. The analyses typically involve use of multi-residue methods (both GC-MS and LC-MS) to test for over 500 pesticide residues.
Degassing Boiler Feed Water in China with 3M™ Liqui-Cel™ Membrane Contactors
ShenLan Environment Inc. located in Shanghai, China uses 3M™ Liqui-Cel™ Membrane Contactors in their boiler feed water treatment systems. These systems realize lower operating costs with the added benefit of reducing the chemicals added to the boiler feed water.
A Comparative Study Of On-Line And Laboratory TOC Analyzers For Analysis Of Raw And Finished Drinking Water
Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis is an important indicator of water quality throughout the drinking water treatment process. Raw source water is progressively treated in chemical coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration steps to remove particulate matter and natural organic matter (NOM).
The Basics: Keeping Our Water Clean Requires Monitoring
Keeping the water in our lakes, rivers, and streams clean requires monitoring of water quality at many points as it gradually makes its way from its source to our oceans. Over the years ever increasing environmental concerns and regulations have heightened the need for increased diligence and tighter restrictions on wastewater quality.
LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER
How To Choose A UV System For Water Reuse In Your Facility
Water reuse is, and will continue to be, one of the biggest considerations for companies all over the world in the battle against water scarcity. By reusing process water, grey water, and wastewater, buildings and facilities will reduce their demand for raw water from surface and groundwater sources and reduce the associated costs of supplying raw water and treating raw water before use. One of the treatment methods for accomplishing this is UV disinfection.
National Recognition For WISE Water Practices
Denver Water and partners pull down big award for pioneering region-wide reuse project.
Bushfires Threaten Drinking Water Safety. The Consequences Could Last For Decades
Bushfires pose serious short- and long-term impacts to public drinking water quality. They can damage water supply infrastructure and water catchments, impeding the treatment processes that normally make our water safe to drink. Several areas in New South Wales and Victoria have already been issued with warnings about the quality of their drinking water. Here’s what we know about the short- and long-term risks.
Understanding PFAS’ Impact On Remediation Strategies
For more than 16.5 million water-utility customers in 33 different states, contamination caused by per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is a source-water issue that will not go away for a long time. What are the practical options for community water systems currently confronting this challenge? Here is an overview of several treatments and their relative successes against a wide variety of PFAS compounds.
All Eyes On Iran
Iran is facing a water crisis. The World Resources Institute says it’s number 4 on the crisis list after Israel, Lebanon, and Qatar. Water consumption is increasing, aquifers have been drunk dry, and investment is inadequate.
4 Benefits Of Sodium Zeolite For Drinking Water Treatment
Use of treatment systems that effectively target and treat toxic and undesirable contaminants is essential to drinking water production. There are typically four stages in a standard drinking water treatment system process, coagulation/flocculation, sedimentation/clarification, filtration, and disinfection. Sodium zeolite is typically utilized in the filtration systems within the filtration stage for optimal treatment performance.
ABOUT DRINKING WATER
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
- Source water for a community’s drinking water supply
- Drinking water treatment of source water
- Distribution of treated drinking water to consumers
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.