DRINKING WATER

Smartphone App Delivers Reproducible And Precise pH Analysis
Smartphone App Delivers Reproducible And Precise pH Analysis

Traditionally when it comes to analysis, there have been two ways to measure pH. The first is the inexpensive method of using test strips, which requires little time or training. The second requires the use of a pH electrode or probe and because it requires more training, time, and equipment, is far more expensive. However, a hybrid application is now available that brings together the ease of use of test strips with technology to ensure preciseness.

DRINKING WATER CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS

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DRINKING WATER APPLICATION NOTES

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DRINKING WATER PRODUCTS

NIROBOX™ SW NIROBOX™ SW

Containerized seawater desalination solutions ensure water availability in a wide range of applications.

ABB Ability™ For Water Desalination ABB Ability™ For Water Desalination

100% available water in the driest of deserts through highly efficient desalination.

Mueller Systems Mi.Hub Data Collector Mueller Systems Mi.Hub Data Collector

The Mueller Systems Mi.Hub data collector component of the Mi.Net® system enables true, two-way radio frequency communication between water meters equipped with Translator® encoder registers, Mi.Node W meter interface modules, Mi.Node E electric modules and the Mi.Host server.

Aztec 600 Manganese Analyzer Aztec 600 Manganese Analyzer

If not adequately removed from drinking water, manganese can cause taste, odor and color problems, staining of clothes and plumbing fixtures, and incrustation of water mains that can result in black water at the customer's tap.

Model 4500 Gas Leak Detector/Monitor Model 4500 Gas Leak Detector/Monitor

The JCS Industries Model 4500 Gas Leak Detector/Monitor is a low cost, non-contact and easy to install measurement device designed for monitoring trace amounts of compressed gaseous water treatment chemicals such as, but not limited to: chlorine, sulfur dioxide and ammonia in a closed or open environment.

WaterCAD WaterCAD

Utilities and engineering firms around the world trust WaterCAD as a reliable decision-support tool for their infrastructure. Design new water systems and manage existing water networks effectively to reduce disruption risks and energy use.

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LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER

  • The Utility Built For A Millennial
    The Utility Built For A Millennial

    According to population projections from the U.S. Census Bureau, millennials are expected to become the nation's largest living adult generation by 2019. 37 percent of millennials were homeowners in 2015 and this number continues to rise, making them a significant fraction of a utilities' customer base.

  • Akron’s Path Toward An Intelligent Water Network Reduces Chemical Dosing While Improving Water Quality
    Akron’s Path Toward An Intelligent Water Network Reduces Chemical Dosing While Improving Water Quality

    When water demand declines, water quality and utility budgets can suffer. When the situation arose in Akron, OH, a smart solution emerged.

  • The Final Straw Against Water Pollution
    The Final Straw Against Water Pollution

    If I were asked to describe the makeup of the Water Online and Water Innovations audience, I could say it’s a mix of engineers and operators focusing on clean and/or wastewater processes within municipal or industrial settings. But that wouldn’t tell the whole story, because you are much more than that — you are caretakers of our planet’s most valuable resource.

  • Hexavalent Chromium: Preparing For Version 2.0
    Hexavalent Chromium: Preparing For Version 2.0

    When the California hexavalent chromium maximum contaminant level (MCL) comes back in 2019, treatment technology improvements will have already significantly lowered the cost of compliance.

  • Georgia Utility Addresses Non-Revenue Water With Advanced Meters
    Georgia Utility Addresses Non-Revenue Water With Advanced Meters

    The City of Dallas captured an additional 600,000 gallons of billable water in four months.

  • Onshore Crude Oil Decontamination Using A Water Security Test Bed
    Onshore Crude Oil Decontamination Using A Water Security Test Bed

    Onshore crude oil production has increased in the United States over the past few years. Oil producers, specifically the North Dakota Pipeline Authority and the Bakken Shale field producers are transporting crude oil by rail and train to both the East and West Coast oil refineries. While rail tends to be one of the safer and more efficient ways of transporting crude oil, there is still a risk of a spill. Oil spills are threats to both ground and surface waters, which can ultimately impact drinking water.

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DRINKING WATER VIDEOS

WRF Direct Potable Reuse Research Projects

Water Research Foundation at the Silicon Valley Advanced Water Purification Center talking with Jim Fiedler and Andrew Salveson about upcoming WRF Direct Potable Reuse research projects.

Video: Hanna Instruments 98703 Portable Turbidity Meter Video: Hanna Instruments 98703 Portable Turbidity Meter
The Hanna Instruments 98703 portable turbidity meter is perfect for stormwater testing.
Video: YSI Professional Plus Multiparameter Meter Video: YSI Professional Plus Multiparameter Meter
This video gives an overview of the features and benefits of the YSI Professional Plus, or Pro Plus, handheld multiparameter water quality instrument.
Video: Variable Area Flowmeters Video: Variable Area Flowmeters

Variable area flowmeters from KROHNE offer not only the maximum possible accuracy but also maximum reliability.

The YSI Pro2030 Handheld Conductivity And DO Meter Video The YSI Pro2030 Handheld Conductivity And DO Meter Video

The YSI Pro2030 DO/conductivity water quality meter is ideal for any field application. The instrument is rugged and extremely simple to use.

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ABOUT DRINKING WATER

In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:

  1. Source water for a community’s drinking water supply
  2. Drinking water treatment of source water
  3. Distribution of treated drinking water to consumers

Drinking Water Sources

Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater. 

Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.

Drinking Water Treatment

Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.

There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.

The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.

The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.

During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.

Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.

Drinking Water Distribution

Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.

A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.

Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.