Malta is an archipelago of three islands situated in the Mediterranean Sea, around fifty miles south of Sicily. There are no rivers of any significance on the islands, and the sparse annual rainfall is only about 500 mm. There is a water deficit in Malta. It occurs especially in summer when there is a great demand from the farmers for their irrigation and from the tourism sector.
A landfill operator’s leachate treatment plant in Missouri required pH reduction following lime-softening and prior to the biological wastewater treatment process. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was chosen as a substitute for sulfuric acid due to improved process control and a reduced tendency to form scale.
The TrojanUVPhox™ installation at Tucson's Advanced Oxidation Process Water Treatment Facility treats 1,4-dioxane and produces water that is blended and then treated at the neighboring Tucson Airport Remediation Project facility. This purified water is supplied to nearly 50,000 end users.
To help customers use variable frequency drives (VFDs) to enhance safety and reliability, Eaton is offering eLearning courses for VFD technology to support product, installation and commissioning and service knowledge. The robust online training program helps electrical distributors, contractors and industrial customers optimize the performance of VFDs.
The city of Scottsdale, Arizona, a community of more than 200,000 residents was historically totally dependent on groundwater resources. By the mid 1980’s, the city began putting together a multi-faceted water resource program to provide the community with a long-term sustainable water supply.
“To me, Microclor® is the top of the line on‐site generation system on the market due to low maintenance and it being very user friendly.” Larry English, Water Quality Manager, Daphne Utilities. Read the full project profile to learn more.
In recent years, the debate about which technology is best suited for water and wastewater level measurement and monitoring is heating up. There are those who argue that ultrasonic level technology has been uncontested as the standard for level and open-channel measurement applications in the water industry.
A dissolved oxygen sensor ought to be simple to understand. Whether it is membrane or optically based, it gives a signal that is proportional to the concentration of oxygen concentration in water.
The pressures of supplying a growing global population mean that the world’s water supplies need to be managed more closely than ever.
For many, access to good-tasting tap water is limited, and buying bottled water can be expensive. Simple pour-through jug filters offer a low-cost and effective alternative. Activated carbons, in conjunction with ion exchange products, produce drinking water that is absent of all industrial pesticides and contaminants.
Organic carbon compounds vary greatly. In fact, one of the first lessons in most introductory Organic Chemistry courses explains that the number of possible carbon compounds is virtually infinite due to carbon’s ability to form long, chain-like molecules. While chromatographic methods like gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are able to make quantitative determinations for specific compounds, the user must first know which specific compounds to look for.
In the early days of variable frequency drive (VFD) technology, the typical application was in process control for manufacturing synthetic fiber, steel bars, and aluminum foil.
Fox Thermal Flow Meters use a constant temperature differential (constant Δ T) technology to measure mass flow rate of air and gases.
Heat and power generation in biofuel engine cogeneration plants has become increasingly important as process industries look for more economical and environmentally friendly ways to produce energy.
Research scientists are making strides to advance the safety and application of potable water reuse through the use of metagenomics for water quality analysis.
Is water hammer pounding your pipeline infrastructure into submission? Here are some tips for avoiding issues associated with hydraulic transients.
2018 is sure to be marked with advancements that make water and wastewater treatment more efficient and sustainable. To keep up with the areas best poised for improvement this year, here is a look at three practices that are in need of change.
Water professionals are constantly looking for ways to produce the highest quality water while staying within limited budgets. In addition, regulations are constantly changing, becoming increasingly stringent. New technologies are essential to meeting customer demands for quality and cost.
As drinking water utilities around the country look to tackle outdated lead service lines, a new standard for replacement will help keep efforts consistent.
Water professionals must plan and budget to meet new regulations on the horizon. They must find the best technology for removing emerging contaminants, such as perfluorinated compounds. Above all, they want to ensure the health and safety of their customers.
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.