Communities around the world are facing a growing storm. Complex challenges including water scarcity, changing demographics, extreme weather patterns, and aging or overly stressed infrastructure are colliding to threaten critical water, energy, transport, enterprise and health networks. The water industry is in the eye of the storm.
A veteran potable water production and treatment superintendent, currently overseeing potable water needs for a federal reservation, reports significant benefit from the availability of secondary containment equipment for chlorine gas storage, as part of a management strategy to help enable the use of that chlorination method.
A membrane degassing system can solve high bicarbonate alkalinity that negatively affects anion bed life.
In recent years, the debate about which technology is best suited for level monitoring and open channel monitoring (OCM) applications has taken some traction. There are those who argue that ultrasonic level technology has been uncontested as the standard for level and OCM applications in the water industry. The counter-argument is that radar technology is more effective because it is more robust and accurate than ultrasonic technology.
For Robert Stout, general manager of Mid-Arkansas Utilities (MAU), the primary water provider for a three-county rural area spanning 2,220 square miles, the reason to switch to a dry calcium hypochlorite feeding system was simple, “using chlorine gas was not only dangerous for us, it was a big hassle and time-consuming.”
Water hardness can wreak havoc on your boilers, creating holes in tubes, eating away at the walls. To keep the hardness at bay, you’re going to need to monitor the levels of calcium and magnesium seeping into your system. There are things you need to know to ensure that you are doing this properly. First, use an automated system to increase reaction time to hardness. Next, monitor the softeners; they are critical in keeping the system functioning. Last, learn the temperament of your individual boiler; no two are alike.
The city of Virovitica in Croatia is located near to the Hungarian border. Its water works company Virkom serves approximately 20.000 people daily with drinking water. In order to assure required European potable water standards, Virkom decided in 2008 to replace the existing old sand filtration units (total flow rate approx. 320 m³/h) by new ones.
With the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) now requiring arsenic levels of 10 ppb for drinking water, reducing high levels of arsenic in one of its community’s water supply had been a challenge for Eureka County. Find out how a community, who once searched for silver, hunted down a way to remove high levels of arsenic from its drinking water.
Real-time contaminant detection, featuring a network of sensors throughout the distribution network, is poised to revolutionize the water industry.
In this paper the importance of reagent water quality for toxic element environmental analyses is discussed, and the suitability of fresh ultrapure water produced using MilliporeSigma water purification systems for ICP-OES and ICP-MS trace element analyses in environmental laboratories is demonstrated.
Turbidity, or the relative clarity of a liquid (in this case drinking water), is caused by the presence of microscopic particles such as clay, silt, or other fine undissolved matter
Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent that can be used to destroy the organic compounds that affect the taste and odor of potable water. Environmental concerns have led to increased use of ozone because, unlike chlorine, it does not form hazardous by-products.
Oxidation Reduction Potential or Redox is the activity or strength of oxidizers and reducers in relation to their concentration. Oxidizers accept electrons, reducers lose electrons. Examples of oxidizers are: chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, bromine, ozone, and chlorine dioxide. Examples of reducers are sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfate and hydrogen sulfide. Like acidity and alkalinity, the increase of one is at the expense of the other.
Increased gas content often leads to problems with bubble formation in highly viscous fluids. 3M™ Liqui-Cel™ Membrane Contactors can provide a simple, compact, and efficient in-line solution for removing bubbles from viscous liquids before they create problems in a process operation.
Many factors affect performance of a pH electrode. When performance degrades, it is always a challenge for the analyst to identify the cause. Common troubleshooting procedures, which include evaluation of slope, electrode drift, time response, and accuracy, take considerable time. By Thermo Fisher Scientific
Before water can be used as a safe and reliable source for drinking water, it must be properly treated. Since water is a universal solvent, it comes in contact with several different pathogens, some of which are potentially lethal, and inactivation is accomplished through chemical disinfection and mechanical filtration treatment. This treatment consists of coarse filtration to remove large objects and pre-treatment which includes disinfection using chlorine or ozone
The QuEChERS (Quick-Easy-Cheap-Effective-Rugged-Safe) sample extraction method was developed for the determination of pesticide residues in agricultural commodities.
Corrosion occurs because metals tend to oxidize when they come in contact with oxygenated water, resulting in the formation of stable metal oxides.
While point level measuring approaches are regarded as simple and user-friendly, they lack the capabilities of more sophisticated continuous measuring instruments.
It's spring and the algae are in bloom, but harmful algal blooms are far from the only threats to drinking water. Fortunately, there are advanced treatment technologies to handle some of the most persistent contaminants today, including algal toxins, Cryptosporidium, and 1,4-dioxane.
A Q&A with Gary Wong, chairman of the SWAN North American Alliance
Water utilities must protect the public health by producing a final product that meets all regulatory requirements. In addition, the water must be pleasing to the customer, with no taste or odor issues. And finally, utilities must stay abreast of emerging contaminants, health advisories, and new regulations. It’s a constant challenge to shoulder these responsibilities while staying within tight budgets. Utilities need a technology that helps them achieve multiple goals cost-effectively.
Sampling and laboratory testing are major responsibilities for water professionals. Test results are used for process control, and ultimately to determine that water is safe for drinking, reuse, or discharge to the environment. Regulatory agencies rely on reported results for proof of permit compliance. So, obtaining representative, properly collected and preserved samples is the first critical step to ensure accurate test results.
Water and wastewater utilities must monitor numerous aspects of their systems on a continuous basis. Various instruments are used to measure these processes, producing volumes of data every day. Endress+Hauser is a leading supplier of products and services for process measurement and automation. Water Online spoke with three of Endress+Hauser's experts to find out how data loggers and managers can save costs while providing effective data management.
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.