All the effort and expense required to produce high-quality water can be for naught if the distribution system cannot maintain appropriate pressure to deliver it efficiently, at a reliable flow rate. Simply pumping more pressure into the system is not the answer. Learn how new pressure monitoring options make it easier to track pressure in every zone to deliver customer satisfaction at peak energy efficiency.
When dissolved carbon dioxide in the water began overloading the anion resin and decreasing capacity at its Rokeby Generating Station, Lincoln Electric Systems had to act quickly to update its winter contingency plans and meet increasing demand. In this case study, learn why the municipality chose a membrane degasifying system over chemical treatment options or a forced draft aerator, thus reducing costs and improving overall efficiency by minimizing downtime.
In the wastewater treatment industry, coagulation has become one of the most widespread processes for effectively separating contaminants and effluent. But coagulation is a complicated and sensitive process, one that alters the chemical balance of the wastewater in order to strip it of unwanted constituents. As in many such processes, pH plays a critical role, and treatment professionals must analyze it closely if they want to properly coagulate their product.
Utility managers and operators rely on flow meters to provide critical information for process monitoring and control. They require and fully expect the flow data to be accurate and reproducible.
Iron is one of the earth's most plentiful resources, making up at least five percent of the earth's crust. In well water iron is usually found as ferrous iron, which is in a dissolved state and may appear clear when first drawn from the tap.
Confusion often arises over the difference between mass and volume flow measurement and when a particular measurement should be applied.
As a bulk emergency chlorine vapor scrubber system approached the end of its anticipated 20-year useful life, the city engaged Integrity Municipal Systems, LLC (IMS) inspected the equipment and proposed a system refurbishment plan that would ensure proper system performance and safe storage of the 30,000 gallons of corrosive caustic soda contained within it.
STX Heavy Industries, a Korean EPC, recently implemented a flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system at a coal-fired power plant in Chile in order to comply with the country's strict environmental regulations. The FGD process requires large amounts of high-quality water. STX.
Xylem TotalCare Condition Audit, an inspection and recommendation program that helps plant operators find ways to lower maintenance costs by identifying inefficiencies in the operation of water and wastewater equipment, was elected to audit the American Canyon Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in California.
Water and wastewater facilities are increasingly looking to ozone disinfection. A strong and indiscriminant oxidant, ozone can effectively address treatment issues with THMs and DBPs in the disinfection process. Ozone disinfection is also a proactive step toward addressing future rules on endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and other trace organics at both water and wastewater plants. While there are many aspects to ozone disinfection system design, the single most important factor in project success is a thorough understanding of your facility’s ozone demand profile. This article provides an outline of the key factors to make your ozone demand test -and ozone project- a success. By Thoram Charanda and Louis LeBrun
3M™ Liqui-Cel™ Membrane Contactors offer a modular skid option for off-shore oil platforms that is significantly smaller and lighter than traditional vacuum towers.
Gas control is an important concern in the beverage industry. Oxygen in the water can oxidize flavor components and shorten the shelf life of the product. Carbon dioxide can also have an impact on taste and pH of the product.
The amount of insoluble matter present in drinking water is an essential quality indicator. Silt, sand, bacteria, spores, and chemical precipitates all contribute to the cloudiness or turbidity of water. Drinking water (DW) which is highly turbid can be unpalatable and unsafe. Consumption of even low concentrations of certain bacteria and other microorganisms can cause serious health effects. Consequently, an accurate and sensitive measurement of turbidity is vital for ensuring that drinking water is free of these contaminants.
Being able to accurately measure both the quantity and rate of water passing through a water distribution system is crucial to gaining an informed understanding of overall efficiency. As such, achieving a measurement that is exact as possible can have a significant impact on key areas including supply planning, maintenance and resource deployment, leakage detection and rectification and the overall environment, in terms of controlling abstraction and reducing unnecessary draw on natural resources.
Radar technology is often viewed as the “best” method of level measurement, but this isn’t necessarily true in the water industry.
One of the most common processes in wastewater treatment is the activated sludge method, which biologically treats the wastewater through the use of large aeration basins. This process requires the pumping of compressed air into the aeration basins where a diffuser system ensures the air is distributed evenly for optimum treatment. The energy needed to provide compressed air is a significant cost in the operation of a wastewater treatment plant.
Hot Clean-In-Place (CIP) sanitization is commonly used to combat microbial growth in the pharmaceutical and food and beverage industries. Performed frequently as a prevention strategy, hot water sanitization is a requirement for high purity water (HPW) for United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.).
Reverse osmosis (RO) systems offer power plant owners and operators a reliable and well-proven water treatment solution. However, designing and caring for an RO system requires a thorough understanding of a plant’s water supply and the technology’s capabilities. The final article of this three-part series will address RO system operation and maintenance best practices.
Using on-site sodium hypochlorite generation technology to make oxidant for water and wastewater treatment is cost-effective, safe, and environmentally responsible. But, as with any piece of equipment, choosing the right one and caring for it properly impacts both life cycle costs and effectiveness. We talked with David McWalters, Field Service Manager-Americas, De Nora, to learn more.
“How can a coastal city that is flanked by an almost endless bank of water have water scarcity problems?”
As industrial facilities continually look for ways to reduce capital costs and decrease installation timelines associated with water treatment and other systems, the practice of containerizing equipment has become more prevalent. A containerized system offers many benefits of lower costs than comparable field erected buildings, faster timelines, and lower field installation requirements.
There are many options for ensuring accurate billing of water used at established industrial customer locations. But how do municipalities or businesses keep track of water availability and use for intermittent applications or movable access points? We spoke with McCrometer, Inc.’s Marc Bennett for insight into how water utilities and industries can efficiently track and allocate water use for billing or internal accounting purposes in such ad hoc applications.
The success of a new reverse osmosis (RO) membrane system is often directly related to its pretreatment. The previous section of this article discussed RO design issues and introduced how a pilot study should include a study of its probable pretreatment equipment since the pretreatment performance will directly affect the performance of the RO system. However, piloting the upstream processes can be challenging in sizing these components for the pilot RO unit’s low flow rate.
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.