CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS

Degas Separator Selected For Wichita Aquifer Storage And Recovery Project
Degas Separator Selected For Wichita Aquifer Storage And Recovery Project

In the 1990s, the City of Wichita, KS, developed a water supply plan that included creating a sustainable water supply through the year 2050. The key component of the plan is recharging the large aquifer that lies under the region with 100 MGD of water from the Little Arkansas River.

EPA Providing Guidance For Drinking Water After Radiological Emergency
EPA Providing Guidance For Drinking Water After Radiological Emergency

What would happen if there was an emergency in the U.S. that caused radioactive material to contaminate drinking water supplies? What steps could your utilities and government take?

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CONTAMINANT REMOVAL PRODUCTS

Pipeline Flash Reactors for Mixing & Contacting Pipeline Flash Reactors for Mixing & Contacting

Pipeline Flash Reactors™ (PFRs or spool pieces) utilize high velocity mixing to transfer ozone or oxygen-enriched sidestreams into bulk water flow, all within a compact footprint. With a PFR, ozone or oxygen mass transfer occurs in the pipeline within seconds, eliminating the need for additional tanks or basins. Whether it is providing ozone for water purification or increased dissolved oxygen for wastewater, Mazzei’s PFR uniformly distributes gas into the water and minimizes the size and cost of gas contacting.

Ultraviolet Disinfection ETS-UV™ Systems Ultraviolet Disinfection ETS-UV™ Systems

Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is used for multifunctional purposes.  UV is most commonly used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical disinfection. It’s one of the most effective methods for inactivating harmful pathogens such as Listeria, E.coli, Giardia and chlorine tolerant pathogens like Cryptosporidium.  UV is also used for removal of organic and inorganic contaminants, including chlorine, ozone and Total Organic Carbon (TOC).  UV used in conjunction with an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) will remove Compounds of Emerging Concerns (CEC's), Synthetic Organics (SO's), Endocrine Disruptor Compounds (EDC's) and Personal and Pharmaceutical Care Products (PPCP's), as well as various taste and odor compounds from water.

Liquid Ammonium Sulfate Feed Systems Liquid Ammonium Sulfate Feed Systems

IMS’s custom-designed, modular LAS Feed Systems for water processes are pre-assembled, factory-piped, wired and tested, offering low installation costs and typical installation time of only 2 hours.

Aqueous Ammonia Feed Systems Aqueous Ammonia Feed Systems

The IMS packaged Aqueous Ammonia Feed Systems include a heavy duty pressure rated aqueous ammonia storage tank, integral ammonia fume scrubber, peristaltic dosing pump, instrumentation and controls in a fully contained, pre-assembled skid.

SureSafe™ Filter Cartridges SureSafe™ Filter Cartridges

SureSafe™ Filter Cartridges will inhibit the growth of Legionella on your filter cartridges. Silver has been used to help sanitize liquids for more than 4,000 years. Permanent Silver Zeolite fibers are used to manufacture HARMSCO® SureSafe™ Filtration Media which inhibits the growth of biofilms on and in the filtration media.

CT5100 Continuous Gas Analyzer CT5100 Continuous Gas Analyzer

Rosemount CT5100 continuous gas analyzer from Emerson is the world’s only hybrid analyzer to combine Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) and Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) measurement technologies for process gas analysis and emissions monitoring. The CT5100 is available in two variants: a certified system, housed in a purged and pressurized enclosure for hazardous area installations; and a non-certified system for use in nonhazardous areas. Both can house up to six lasers to measure up to 12 critical component gases and potential pollutants simultaneously within a single system - meeting local, state, national, and international regulatory requirements. The CT5100 is a unique combination of advanced technology, high reliability, and rugged design. Its "laser chirp" technique expands gas analysis in both the near- and mid-infrared range, enhancing process insight, improving overall gas analysis sensitivity and selectivity, removing cross interference, and reducing response time. The laser chirp technique produces sharp, well-defined peaks from high resolution spectroscopy that enable specificity of identified components with minimum interference and without filtration, reference cells, or chemometric manipulations.

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DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL PODCASTS

Microbial Contamination Monitoring For Water Distribution Systems Microbial Contamination Monitoring For Water Distribution Systems

Back in 2014, Louisiana’s Department of Health and Hospitals wrote an executive order for municipalities to boost their chlorine residuals as high as possible to burn off all biofilm and stop the outbreak of brain-eating amoeba (Naegleria fowleri) that had been detected as the cause of death in a number of individuals.

Replacing The Traditional Use Of Chlorine As A Disinfectant Replacing The Traditional Use Of Chlorine As A Disinfectant

Steve Day, Marketing and Product Management Director with Calgon Carbon UV Technologies sat down with Water Online Radio to talk about his company, and UV technology.

Water Quality Comes Under The Consumer Microscope Water Quality Comes Under The Consumer Microscope

Water quality is getting a lot more scrutiny these days. And that’s a good thing says Russ Swerdfeger, Global Director of Memcor Product Management with Evoqua. Alongside his colleague Daryl Weatherup, Director of Marketing with Evoqua, Swerdfeger recently discussed the future of drinking water and the key issues and concerns facing the water industry right now with Water Talk.

Drumming Up Chemical Injection Drumming Up Chemical Injection

The operating ranges for chemical injection need to be large because of the variability of flow in many treatment operations. As Bill McDowell, Vice President of Operations with Blue White Industries explains in this Water Talk interview, “You might be down to as low as 5 or 10 milliliters a minute and then one hour later; you might need to pump 15 gallons a minute out of the same pump and through the same sensor.”

On Site Hydrogen Peroxide Generation for Advanced Oxidation Process On Site Hydrogen Peroxide Generation for Advanced Oxidation Process

Vitamins, steroids and hormones are all emerging as contaminants being detected in drinking water supplies. As Jon McClean, Chief Technology Officer with Neptune Benson explains in this Water Online Radio interview, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) add hydrogen peroxide in front of UV treatment to eradicate contamination.

TrojanUV + Water Reuse (Audio) TrojanUV + Water Reuse (Audio)

Jennifer Muller, municipal marketing director for TrojanUV, sat down with Water Online Radio for this live interview from the show floor at WEFTEC 2011 in Los Angeles. Muller talked about Trojan’s ultraviolet (UV) disinfection technology and how it lends itself to the important issues of water reuse and sustainability.

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CONTAMINANT REMOVAL VIDEOS

Ozone Simplified: Make Your Next Disinfection Project As Simple As 1-2-O<sub>3</sub> Ozone Simplified: Make Your Next Disinfection Project As Simple As 1-2-O3

Pinnacle Ozone Solutions was founded with the goal of simplifying the ozone process.  Our products and systems specifically designed to be modular, reliable, and both energy and cost efficient.  Our truly unique approach allows each system to be precisely matched to your individual needs using truly independent QuadBlock™ ozone generator cells. This approach also allows for easy expansion, reduces the need for costly redundant or standby equipment, and can be fully upgraded at any time. Watch this informative video about how Pinnacle’s radically simple approach to ozone projects. 

De Nora Brings New Focus To Water Treatment De Nora Brings New Focus To Water Treatment

Following the acquisition of Severn Trent Services’ Water Purification Group, Water Online caught up with John Dyson, Commercialization Manager for the newly-branded De Nora Water Technologies, to understand what the change means for the water and wastewater industry. Dyson discusses how the new organization is enhancing the company’s product lines including the newly redesigned ClorTec on-site sodium hypochlorite generation system.

PFOA Task Force - Calgon Carbon Corporation PFOA Task Force - Calgon Carbon Corporation

Behind the terrifying headlines of contaminated water exists an effective, affordable solution. No one wants to be without drinking water, yet many communities around the country are being told their water is unsafe. Watch this video to learn more.

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ABOUT

The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.

There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.

The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.

The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.

Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.

A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.

Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.

Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits.  Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.

Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).