Aqua Engineers is a local Hawaiian company founded almost 40 years ago which delivers operations, engineering, and construction management to the water and wastewater industry throughout Hawaii. Also, as an owner and operator, Aqua Engineers is keenly focused on the return on investment for process equipment decisions, but also on the safety of its operators and surrounding community. Read the full case study to learn why Aqua Engineers chose the Microclor OSHG system provided by UGSI Solutions for both their sites in 2016.
In 2000, Indiana American Water, a subsidiary of American Water Company, purchased the Warsaw Indiana system which serves a population of over 16,000. Indiana American then completed a Comprehensive Planning Study that included a number of upgrades and improvements to enhance the reliability, safety and water quality of the system.
A San Jose Water Quality Engineer said, "I wasn’t convinced that PSI’s Monoclor chloramine dosing system would solve our problems after several failed attempts to improve residual, but with PSI offering a trial including installation, operation, and troubleshooting for three months, San Jose Water decided to invest the necessary resources to pilot this system.
Loprest has been designing and fabricating manganese removal systems using manganese greensand for over forty years. Drawing on that experience; filtration rates, run times, backwash procedures, chemical dosage rates, etc. are all established by theoretical calculations and history. Therefore, Loprest’s goal in this pilot study was to conduct uninterrupted operation per bid testing procedures and document the results.
Located in Northern Missouri, the city of Trenton and its more than 6,000 residents pride themselves on self‐sufficiency and pragmatic decision making. During the spring of 2012, the utility embarked on the design and construction of chemical feed system upgrades at the existing water plant that would help the city manage the need for new capacity, better control of trihalomethanes (THM’s) and improve operator safety by removing gaseous chlorine as a disinfectant.
The burden of the unavailability of replacement parts for the aging generators and the FBD basins' high maintenance motivated the Orlando Utilities Commission's Southwest Water Treatment Plant to update and upgrade the plant’s ozone system.
The Upper Trinity Regional Water District (UTRWD) is a conservation district created by the State of Texas in 1989 to provide water, wastewater, solid waste and storm water services to numerous towns and cities approximately 50 miles northwest of Dallas. In 2010, the UTRWD installed three 2,000 pound per day (PPD) chlorine equivalent Microclor® OSHG systems. The systems continue to provide UTRWD with a reliable supply of hypochlorite for disinfection in a manner that is less expensive and less risky than gas chlorine or liquid bulk hypochlorite delivered via truck or rail through such a heavily populated area.
A single WRT Z-92® Uranium Removal treatment system was selected by the City of Grand Island, NE to remove high concentrations of uranium in three city wells. When the Z-92® Uranium Removal treatment system was installed in 2012, it was the largest uranium treatment facility in the nation. The high uranium in the raw water source is consistently being reduced to levels below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL).
The Golden State Water Company selected WRT’s Z-92® Uranium Removal treatment system to reduce high concentrations of uranium in a single treatment system for three wells located in the Morongo Valley of California. Since installation of the Z-92® Uranium Removal treatment system in Morongo del Sur in 2013, the uranium levels are being reduced to levels below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL).
Most Americans take clean drinking water for granted as a convenience of modern life. The United States has one of the world’s safest drinking water supplies, but new challenges constantly emerge.
Aqua Pennsylvania (Aqua PA), an Aqua America subsidiary, serves more than 1.4 million people in 32 counties across Pennsylvania. Aqua PA has significant experience using chloramine chemistry to mitigate trihalomethane (THM) disinfection byproduct formation in its many distribution systems.
When the City of Midlothian, Texas, was ready to expand their water treatment plant to accommodate a growing population, they carefully considered and investigated their water disinfection options.
A potable water plant in Eastern Angelina County, Texas, serves over 2,000 rural customers.
Iron, manganese, arsenic and hydrogen sulfide are indigenous to numerous groundwater aquifers. With the exception of arsenic, these constituents are more prevalent in deeper aquifers that are devoid of dissolved oxygen. This report summarizes the results and conclusions of a groundwater treatment pilot test program. This pilot test program was undertaken to determine the removal performance for arsenic, manganese and iron at the City of Merced’s Well 20 site. Chemical treatment processes required were also studied.
The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.
There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.
The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.
The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.
A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.
Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.
Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits. Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.
Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).