White Papers and Case Studies for the Petroleum & Refining Industry

  1. Water Treatments Mass Exodus To Improved Chemical Dosing

    When first moved from water reservoirs, water contains materials that need to be treated and or removed. All microorganisms, flora and fauna waste, assorted dirt and insects all need to be dealt with before, water is fit for human consumption.  It is understood that, water needs to make many detours in its path from raw supplies to the tap.   All these detours start at the treatment plant.  At the plant water goes though applications that remove contaminants such as suspended solids, bacteria, algae, fungi, and minerals such as iron and manganese. The final objective is to turn contaminated debris choked water into safe, drinking water.

  2. Technology Qualification Of 3M Liqui-Cel Membrane Contactors For Deoxygenation Of Low Salinity Water For Polymer Flooding

    The use of low salinity water in Enhanced Oil Recovery processes has been a recent topic of discussion. The potential to increase recovery rates by altering the reservoir characteristic from an oil-wet to a water-wet state, along with potential cost savings, has garnered attention in recent years.

  3. Deploying Software-Based Emission Monitoring Systems For Refining Processes

    In the process industries, legal requirements regulate the continuous acquisition of emission data to monitor and control pollutants released into the atmosphere. Data verifies that plant emissions do not exceed law-enforced thresholds. From a plant owner's perspective, it's important that efficient and reliable tools for acquiring emission data are available. Typical plant continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) are essentially hardware-based.

  4. Capacitance Level Switches Provide Reliable Water/Oil Interface Detection

    There are a number of point level approaches to measuring the interface between water and oil for water dump control in the oil and gas industry. However, each has disadvantages — manual methods introduce human error, conductivity switches are rendered inaccurate by buildup, and float switches are susceptible to wear and tear. This white paper introduces capacitance level switches as an accurate and reliable alternative for water/oil interface detection.

  5. Level Switch Detects Oil And Nitrogen Interface To Support Effective PIG System Operation

    A major oil producer in Alaska’s North Slope region operates miles of transit pipeline as part of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) within the U.S. National Petroleum Reserve – Alaska.

  6. Measuring Flare Gas Within The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme

    Flare gas is the name given to the surplus waste gas produced during the extraction of crude oil and the subsequent refining process.

  7. Flow Switches For Refinery Water / Wastewater Control

    To ensure quality production of petroleum-based products in oil refineries, including gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating oil, and byproducts for plastics and a variety of lubricants, operators must establish reliable water monitoring and treatment. There are three refinery process areas that require large amounts of water: cooling water units, desalter units and wastewater treatment plants.

  8. Thermal Mass Flow Meter Helps Mud Logging Contractor Meet U.S. EPA Flare Gas Emissions Monitoring Requirements

    Upstream oil/gas production companies around the globe depend on mud logging service companies to analyze mud samples that help them maintain the correct direction for their drilling field operations. In mud logging, samples of rock cuttings from bore holes are brought to the surface by recirculating drilling media (mud) for analysis by a mobile laboratory to determine the lithology and fluid content of the sample.

  9. How To Reduce Methane Emissions With Thermal Mass Flow Meters

    The flare gas discussion is heating up again. According to the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), U.S. oil production is at an all-time high, and so are the harmful methane emissions from leaks, flaring and venting.

  10. Flow Switches For Refinery Water Treatment

    Reliable monitoring and treatment of water in oil refineries is essential for the production of petroleum-based products, including gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating oil, and byproducts for plastics and a variety of lubricants. There are three process areas within refineries that require large amounts of water: cooling units, desalter units and wastewater treatment