White Papers and Case Studies for the Petroleum & Refining Industry

  1. Importance Of Flare Gas Measurement Grows To Meet Environmental Regulations
    12/1/2017

    In the oil and gas industry, regulations and requirements to measure, monitor and report flared gases continue to expand and extend. The U.S. EPA continues to focus on enhancing regulations aimed at reducing emissions of methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the environment.

  2. 5 Approaches To Treating Wastewater In Petrochemical Production
    5/12/2016

    At Praxair, we are making our planet more productive. Whether it is by providing industrial gases that are used in the refining and processing of fossil fuels or technologies that allow facilities to reliably meet their wastewater treatment guidelines, Praxair is helping companies be more productive.

  3. Reduce The Risks Of Tank Gauging By Using Work Practice Control
    5/3/2017

    Manual tank gauging is a common oilfield activity that’s resulted in multiple worker deaths in recent years. By using work practice control, operators can reduce the risks it poses significantly.

  4. 3M Liqui-Cel Membrane Contactors Remove Dissolved Gases From Water In Many Hydrocarbon Recovery And Process Applications
    11/26/2013

    The oil and gas industry has utilized various deaeration technologies for many years to remove dissolved gases, particularly oxygen, from injection water. Minimizing the environmental impact, improving operating efficiency, avoiding process issues and protecting system components are just a few of the reasons degassing is necessary in many hydrocarbon recovery and water processes.

  5. Flow Switches For Refinery Water / Wastewater Control
    12/15/2017

    To ensure quality production of petroleum-based products in oil refineries, including gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating oil, and byproducts for plastics and a variety of lubricants, operators must establish reliable water monitoring and treatment. There are three refinery process areas that require large amounts of water: cooling water units, desalter units and wastewater treatment plants.

  6. Capacitance Level Switches Provide Reliable Water/Oil Interface Detection
    12/2/2013

    There are a number of point level approaches to measuring the interface between water and oil for water dump control in the oil and gas industry. However, each has disadvantages — manual methods introduce human error, conductivity switches are rendered inaccurate by buildup, and float switches are susceptible to wear and tear. This white paper introduces capacitance level switches as an accurate and reliable alternative for water/oil interface detection.

  7. Tank Monitoring Challenges Solved With Radar Level Transmitters
    10/25/2018

    An electrical contractor in the Upper Midwest United States provides oilfield tank monitoring for several oil companies. They supply level measurement and control in nearly 400 barrel tanks containing crude oil and/or produced salt water.

  8. Thermal Mass Flow Meter Helps Mud Logging Contractor Meet U.S. EPA Flare Gas Emissions Monitoring Requirements
    12/14/2017

    Upstream oil/gas production companies around the globe depend on mud logging service companies to analyze mud samples that help them maintain the correct direction for their drilling field operations. In mud logging, samples of rock cuttings from bore holes are brought to the surface by recirculating drilling media (mud) for analysis by a mobile laboratory to determine the lithology and fluid content of the sample.

  9. Flow Meter Advisory: Follow The Money
    5/26/2017

    While the majority of household consumers believe that they deserve the full attention of a water system, from a revenue perspective this does not bear out. Though the average home faucet is undoubtedly valued by its drinking water provider, the reality is that the vast majority of drinking water revenue comes from heavy-use commercial and industrial operations.

  10. Drilling Fluid Producer Discovers The Coriolis Advantage
    1/10/2019

    Drilling fluid is critical for successful oil extraction. Typically made up of water, clay and a complex mix of chemicals, it supports the drilling process in a variety of ways — from lubricating and cooling the drill bit under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions, to lifting drill cuttings to the surface, to maintaining oil well stability and safety. But drilling fluid is not a “one size fits all” solution. To work properly, the fluid must be optimized for the unique geographic conditions of individual well sites.