The 64,000 sq ft Chesapeake Bay Watershed includes parts of MD, VA, WV, PA, and NY. Of the 1,000s of WWTPs supporting nearly 18 million people in the watershed, 470 are designated by EPA as significant sources of nutrients and TSS. Algal blooms reduce DO levels in the water, killing plant and animal life –from marsh grasses to blue crabs to rockfish. Learn how De Nora TETRA™ Denite® technology is treating 450+ MGD in the Bay.
Toray UF membrane modules were piloted over a fifteen-week period to help service the growing demand for clean water in southwest North Dakota. The outcome, as part of the Southwest Pipeline Project (SWPP), would be construction of the Oliver-Mercer-North Dunn (OMND) Water Treatment Plant.
To better comply with the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2) the City of Delaware (Ohio) piloted Torayfil hollow-fiber PVDF membrane modules to treat surface water for their 7.2 mgd full-scale facility. After significant review of the data, cost, and other factors, the City and URS selected Toray to utilize in the full scale design. Read the full case study to learn more.
Municipal water services continually utilize improved technologies so that they can offer their customers higher water quality.
An innovative approach to high quality ice production has been adopted by the new Ice Palace in Moscow.
Ammonia is used as a cleaning and bleaching agent in the production of fertilizers, plastics, explosives, and many other products.
Lincoln Electric Systems (LES) recently commissioned a membrane decarbonation system using 3M™ Liqui-Cel™ EXF-14x28 Series Membrane Contactors to remove CO2 prior to their mixed bed deionizers.
Many manufacturing processes, analytical measurements, and other industrial processes that involve aqueous solutions are adversely affected by bubbles in the fluid stream. 3M™ Liqui-Cel™ SP Series Membrane Contactors provide a very simple, cost effective solution to help eliminate bubbles from such processes.
Controlling dissolved oxygen (DO) levels during beverage production is vital for ensuring consistent product quality and shelf life. This is particularly true for canning, where high DO levels can cause breakdown of the can lining, corrosion and even leaking – which in turn can result in product waste and customer dissatisfaction. In some cases, can supplier warranties have exclusions for high DO levels.
Dissolved gases like NH3, H2S or NOx in waste water lead to contamination in the sewage system and high treatment costs for municipal waste water treatment plants.
In the food and beverage industry, there is a growing awareness of environmental considerations wherever chemicals are used. In response, companies are trending towards alternative systems that operate with less chemical usage.
A major power plant in Thailand is using 3M™ Liqui-Cel™ Membrane Contactors to remove carbon dioxide from a DI water system. The system is an expansion project and will be used to feed a high pressure boiler. Liqui-Cel membrane contactors are being used to lower the CO₂ inlet into an Ionpure Electrodeionization (EDI) system. Carbon dioxide adds an ionic load to the EDI system, which can reduce the performance of the system. Manufactures of the EDI equipment suggest lowering the inlet CO₂ to reduce the load on the equipment and improve the water quality.
As engineers come under increasing pressure to reduce maintenance and operating costs, inefficient combination double-pass reverse osmosis and electrodeionization (RO/EDI) water treatment systems have begun to lose popularity as a means of providing ultra-pure water. Integrated membrane systems (IMS), on the other hand, combine multiple membrane-based water treatment processes into a single system. In this case study, find out how a heat and power plant in Northeast China lowered capital costs and energy use by adopting an IMS to replace its conventional water treatment system.
IMEC (Interuniversity Micro- Electronics Center) in Belgium is Europe's largest independent research center. It focuses on microelectronics, nanotechnology, and enabling design methods and technologies for ICT (Integrated Circuit Technology) systems. IMEC's research runs 3 to 10 years ahead of industrial needs.
Water membranes are widely used in the water treatment processes. They have become a fundamental player in separation technology because of the fact that they require no additional chemicals and their relatively low energy requirements.
Water membranes have been applied during the extraction of produced water, treatment of waste/sewage water and processing of surface water all with huge success levels. Conventional water treatment techniques are over time incorporating in their processes the use on water membranes. Commercialization of membranes was first done in the 1970s and 1980s.
Membrane technology is chiefly based on the presence of pores on the membranes that make them semi-permeable. The simple principle on which water membranes work is such that the semi-permeability of water membranes ensures that only water is allowed to pass through a specific membrane while trapping unwanted particles and substances.
In both microfiltration and ultra filtration, membranes provide an effective barrier for arresting suspended solids in water.
To aid substances to penetrate across a semi-permeable membrane the following steps are undertaken: Electric potential introduction, high pressure application and ensuring that the concentration gradient on both sides of the membrane is maintained. The surface area of the membrane also determines the efficiency of the membrane in use.
The only drawback on water membranes is that they cannot remove substances that are actually dissolved in the water such as phosphorus, nitrates and heavy metal ions. The following are categories of membranes: Microfiltration (MF), Ultra filtration (UF), Reverse osmosis (RO), and Nanofiltration (NF) membranes
Ultra filtration membranes employ polymer technology with chemically created microscopic pores that trap dissolved substances therefore eliminating the possible use of any coagulants.