Are you prepared to keep services up and running if the grid goes down?
Water and energy make quite the power couple. If they were people, they would put Brad and Angelina, Jay Z and Beyoncé, or Kim and Kanye to shame (though the latter seem to do it on their own).
We literally can’t live without them (the utilities, that is), and they can’t exist without each other. Even the world’s most advanced water treatment and delivery system is rendered obsolete without the energy to run it — a scary thought since the electric grid is vulnerable to numerous acts of Nature and man. While the grid has held up very well, climate change, population growth, aging infrastructure, and cyberterrorism all portend heightened risk for the future, or that things may get worse before they get better.
If and when disaster strikes, water and wastewater utilities will still be relied upon — more than ever, in fact — to provide the truly essential services that on good days are taken for granted. But these services can’t be provided if the lights aren’t on, so to speak. This is why the U.S. EPA created the Power Resilience Guide for Water and Wastewater Utilities, “to promote coordination and communication between water sector utilities and their electric utilities; and provide strategies to increase water utilities’ resilience to power loss.”
The EPA expounds upon seven key areas of preparation in the 31-page guide, which is narrowed here to a bite-sized overview. If you’re falling behind in any of these areas, refer to the full report for additional guidance and information on how to shore up resiliency.
Five steps are recommended:
This two-step process will determine how much power is needed for critical functions (e.g., treatment processes, pump stations) to direct the commissioning and readiness of emergency generator systems.
There are six questions to ask when choosing a generator, according the EPA report (which first recommends checking local, state, and federal regulations for generator specifications; federal regs for stationary internal combustion engines are found here).
Fuel can be at a premium during an emergency, as suppliers may be down and transportation may be limited. Utilities must have fuel on-site, as well as the means to get it from one operation to the next. A proper plan should address the following, according to the EPA guide:
The changeover to energy-efficient equipment is trending at water and wastewater utilities — a money-saver in normal times, but especially significant during a blackout. When equipment requires less power, generators can run longer while saving fuel. The EPA helps utilities down the path of energy efficiency with yet another guide, Ensuring A Sustainable Future: An Energy Management Guidebook for Wastewater and Water Utilities.
The most innovative and energy-invested utilities are employing different (sometimes multiple) methods of on-site power production, or distributed energy resources (DER), to reduce dependence on the electric grid. Examples of DER cited by the EPA include: microturbines/wind turbines, fuel cells, photovoltaic systems (solar panels), traditional internal combustion engines, and combined heat and power (CHP) systems.
The pinnacle of power resiliency is a self-sufficient microgrid system, which can operate independent of the grid and can be 'switched on' during an emergency. Microgrids serving critical public services and private businesses can even link together to form a larger microgrid — “‘islands’ of power during an outage” — the EPA notes. The agency’s On-Site Renewable Energy Generation guide is available here.
There are a variety of federal funding opportunities for utilities seeking to bolster resiliency (too many to name here) available through Federal Funding for Utilities – Water/Wastewater – in National Disasters (Fed FUNDS).
The Power Resilience Guide for Water and Wastewater Utilities concludes with a helpful table to understand funding options, with the disclaimer that it is “based on a broad interpretation of funding eligibility and policy. Individual utility projects will need evaluation on a case-by-case basis.”
The takeaway is that water and energy are virtually lost without each other, making them the ultimate power couple. From a utility perspective, and for the sake of communities served, we must keep the lights on and the water flowing — for better or for worse, in good times and in bad.
Image credit: "Electric light," Alan Cleaver © 2007, used under an Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic license: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/