A gourmet cheese, whey protein, and lactose production facility located in the Midwest had been utilizing a land application system for effluent discharge for over 40 years. Using a combination of ridge and furrow and spray irrigation, the plant had many years of success applying their wastewater to the land. However, as the gourmet cheese products gained in popularity along with the growth in demand for food grade whey protein and lactose the plant grew to a scale where the land application system could no longer achieve compliance with the strict ground water standards for nitrates. This challenge could most effectively be met by building a biological wastewater treatment plant. After evaluating a variety of biological treatment options such as SBR, MBR, MBBR, and conventional activated sludge, the economics dictated that an activated sludge plant would be the best approach.