During operation, a remote mine site in Nevada experienced a pit flood as a direct result of groundwater recharge where approximately 40 million gallons of water flooded the open pit and brought mine operations to a halt.
Produced water (PW) is salty water trapped in the reservoir rock and brought up along with oil or gas during production. It subsists under high pressures and temperatures, and usually contains hydrocarbons and metals. Therefore, it must be treated before being discharged to surface water. Different techniques are being used to treat PW through phase separations, system control and design, and chemical treatments. In this paper, we discuss our experimental results on treating PW through electrocoagulation (EC).
An international mining company was looking at electrocoagulation for waste treatment at a copper mine in South America. A sample from ore processing was provided for bench-scale testing.
XXXX Plating Company operates a decorative plating shop in Los Angeles, Ca., doing finishes in nickel, copper, and chromium.
A milk producer operates an evaporated milk production facility that generates an average of 58,000 gpd of contaminated water with spikes of 1,200 gallons up to 12 times per day. Two 2,000 gallon batch tanks are used for pH adjustment before discharge. Most of the flow goes through the tanks.
A major U.S. waste management company provided a sample of wastewater generated by an underwater ship cleaning operation. The sample was to be tested in the KASELCO laboratory for removal of copper and zinc and for improvement of clarity (suspended solids removal). Customer is interested in treating 50GPM.
At the Coca-Cola FEMSA plant in Buenos Aires, Argentina, increases in production required an expansion of their wastewater treatment plant. RWL Water technicians and engineers implemented an airlift ultrafiltration (UF) system operated with a membrane bioreactor (MBR) to provide wastewater treatment for reuse.
A food manufacturer in Washington state had a source of well water contaminated with vegetable and fish oils. A five gallon sample was was sent to Kaselco for testing via our electrocoagulation process.
A U.S. light aircraft manufacturing company uses an alkaline cleaner followed by an alkaline de-smutter, rinse, acid de-smutter (possibly using potassium permanganate), rinse, alodine, and a final rinse. The three 1,700gal rinses are dumped approximately once each week, or more often, based on the pH.
A refinery needed to upgrade the wastewater treatment system to prepare for expected changes brought about by the use of a new crude feedstock with elevated concentrations of TDS and conductivity. Veolia Water Technologies supplied an AnoxKaldnes Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) treatment system to reduce the BOD and ammonia in the effluent.
A California electroplater offers a number of finishes including nickel, EN, chromium, chemfilms, copper, cadmium, and zinc. They formulate most of the plating chemicals used in the plant, including the electroless nickel baths.
Samples tested were from a hog feeding operation that uses a pull plug and flush system. The water supply for the barn is from the anaerobic lagoon.
Wastewater filtration is often part of the tertiary treatment process that involves the final removal of suspended particles from water that has passed through both the primary and secondary treatment phases and immediately precedes disinfection. As the water passes through the filter, residual suspended material and bacteria is trapped in the filter and are removed from the filtered water. Passage can be blocked by physical obstruction, biological action, adsorption, absorption or a combination of ways. Wastewater filtration is usually the final step in the solids removal process.
With regulations increasing around wastewater effluent, the use of ultrafiltration and microfiltration systems in further polishing effluent has grown. Sand or activated carbon filters can provide a media for bacterial decomposition of nutrients, converting nitrates into nitrogen gas. The rise of water reuse applications is also fueling the increasing use of filters during the final polishing stages of the wastewater treatment process.