DRINKING WATER TREATMENT
A municipal water quality manager reports replacement of sodium hypochlorite (hypo) vacuum feeder units with a more advanced type at one water treatment plant (WTP) has helped allow for continued reliability for chlorination.
DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
Sensor Technology For Control Of Activated Sludge Aeration
Design routines and operation strategies for activated sludge aeration systems have traditionally been based on manual control. By Robert Smith, P.E., BCEE, Ph.D., YSI
Article: Water Quality Management Using Cloud Computing - Solution For Corporate Control Of Environmental Impact Data One of industry’s most vexing impediments in responding to environmental problems has been difficulties in properly centralizing and managing captured water quality data. A different approach from the heretofore standard (and now outdated) “consultant-centric,” spreadsheet-based environmental information management system — with its typical project delays and increased costs — is now essential. By Locus Technologies
Making Accurate pH Measurements
Like the old saying goes, give a man a watch and he always knows what time it is. Give him two watches and he never knows the correct time. What do watches have to do with pH? In this article, we will tie the analogy of accurate time to pH measurement and show how to make more accurate, dependable and believable pH measurements by using three pH sensors.
Biothane Delivers Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment To Veryfine Products
Biothane’s turnkey project was designed to treat wastewater by providing a series of treatment processes. Pre-treatment consists of a bar screen, influent sump, grit removal and rotary screen to remove debris from the influent stream.
Versatility Of Thermal Mass Flow Meters
There are many well documented flow meter technologies that are essentially trying to accomplish the same thing: measure fluid flow rate. Some of the technologies that are entrenched in the market, such as flow meters that utilize differential pressure as the measurement principle, are well understood by customers. Thermal mass flow meters however, such as the Magnetrol® Thermatel® TA2, are a rapidly growing technology that is continuously evolving.
Project Profile: City of Aurora, Oregon In late 2009, Water Works Engineers contacted AdEdge to design and implement an arsenic, iron and manganese removal system to serve the City of Aurora, Oregon. By AdEdge Technologies Inc.
Biological Filtration For Iron And Manganese Removal
In an earlier papers, the author reviewed the physical-chemical processes conventionally used to remove iron and manganese from groundwater and explained how the process most commonly used in France (aeration + filtration) led to the discovery of coincident biological phenomena. These were subsequently applied to enhance the performance of certain existing units and, especially, to serve as a basis for a new generation of biological treatment plants offering sharply improved performance levels. By Pierre MOUCHET, Manager of Technical Assistance and Information
High-Power UV Lamps Lower Replacement Costs, Reduce Maintenance
The Tesla Water Treatment Facility is located in Tracy California approximately 60 miles west of San Francisco in the Central Valley of California. Since 1934, San Francisco has received water from the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir in Yosemite National Park via the 167 mile long Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct. Due to the pristine nature of the water source, the water is unfiltered and was only chlorinated at the 75 year old Tesla Portal facility.
Two Phase Flow Considerations For Coriolis Meters
Two phase flow is notoriously problematic for most flow technologies. Read how ABB is tackling the 2-phase flow problem through an entire meter-design approach, which entails a state of the art electronics platform and innovative sensor technology. By Ron DiGiacomo
Deuel Vocational Institution (DVI) ZLD Drinking Water Treatment System, Tracy, CA
A study was conducted by an environmental engineering firm to design a suitable treatment system for the groundwater currently used as the potable water supply for DVI. Reverse Osmosis (RO) was determined to be an effective technology in meeting the applicable standards for water quality.
DRINKING WATER TREATMENT APPLICATION NOTES
Removal Of DBPs With Activated Carbon
In order to reduce the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts in drinking water, alternative disinfectant use has become increasingly widespread. Monochloramine is a leading alternative disinfectant that offers advantages for municipal water. This tech brief details the removal of monochloramine using activated carbon.
Disinfection: Free Chlorine Measurement In Drinking Water Treatment Before water can be used as a safe and reliable source for drinking water, it must be properly treated. Since water is a universal solvent, it comes in contact with several different pathogens, some of which are potentially lethal, and inactivation is accomplished through chemical disinfection and mechanical filtration treatment. This treatment consists of coarse filtration to remove large objects and pre-treatment which includes disinfection using chlorine or ozone
Disinfection: Chlorine Measurement By Amperometric Sensor Chlorine in aqueous solutions is used for a number of purposes such as disinfection, taste and odor control, bleaching, and as a powerful oxidizing agent in various manufacturing processes. Chlorine is a costly chemical and requires large amounts of energy to produce. About 3000 KWH are required to produce a ton of chlorine from brine, and the delivered cost ranges from $160 to $300 per ton. As energy becomes more expensive, so inevitably will chlorine. By Emerson Process Management, Rosemount Analytical Liquid
Bringing Efficiency And New Confidence To BOD₅ Analysis
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) analysis is the test everyone loves to hate—and for compelling reasons.
Water Quality Monitoring: Turbidity Monitoring In Drinking Water Treatment Plants Turbidity, or the relative clarity of a liquid (in this case drinking water), is caused by the presence of microscopic particles such as clay, silt, or other fine undissolved matter
Analysis Of Effect On Water Quality Due To Leaching From Water Works Equipment Materials Using The TOC-VCSH Along with the revision of the drinking water quality standard of the Water Works Law, a part of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare ordinance providing the technical standards for water works facilities was revised
Application Note: Troubleshooting A pH Electrode
Many factors affect performance of a pH electrode. When performance degrades, it is always a challenge for the analyst to identify the cause. Common troubleshooting procedures, which include evaluation of slope, electrode drift, time response, and accuracy, take considerable time. By Thermo Fisher Scientific
Organics Monitoring (TOC)
Total organic carbon (TOC) testing is the traditional method for determining organic matter in water. However there is a far more practical, affordable and often more useful way to measure organic matter. UV absorbance testing (UVA) is rapidly becoming the preferred method of measuring organics even when the levels of organics being measured are very small.
Advanced On-Line Instrumentation Helps DAF Systems Lower Costs
Many food processors use dissolved air flotation (DAF) to remove fats, oils and grease (FOG) and suspended solids from their wastewater streams.
Busseron Creek Watershed Partnership Addresses Concerns In A Rural Watershed As with other watershed organizations, the Busseron Creek Watershed Partnership (BCWP) exists because of surface water quality degradation. In this case, those waters drain 163,231 acres of a watershed that crosses the boundaries of Vigo, Clay, Green, and Sullivan counties in West- Central Indiana. By YSI
DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PRODUCTSMore Drinking Water Treatment Products
LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER TREATMENT
Understanding Salt Passage Vs. Salt Rejection In Reverse Osmosis Systems
Knowing the dynamics of membrane separation and distinguishing salt rejection and salt passage and how they’re calculated is necessary to understand the unique operational behaviors of reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), microfiltration (MF), and ultrafiltration (UF) systems.
A Beginner’s Guide To On-Site Sodium Hypochlorite Generation
Why buy, transport, and store chlorine when you can make your own? Here are nine questions to consider before adopting the practice.
8 Questions For Every Water Utility After The UCLA Water Main Break
The water and mud from the big water main break that flooded the UCLA campus in Los Angeles in late July left behind several questions that could be asked of every water supplier in the country. Find out for yourself how vulnerable your home town’s water supply is to leaks and breaks with these eight questions. By Ed Osann, NRDC senior water policy analyst
Water Quality Issues? It Might Be A Storage Tank Maintenance Problem
Every drinking water utility works to avoid disinfection byproducts (DBPs), discoloration, and taste and odor issues. But often those problems occur outside of the treatment scheme entirely.
Reflective UV Cuts Energy Use By 90%
NeoTech has created a new reflective ultraviolet (UV) disinfection technology that requires only eight lamps— roughly 1/10 of the number of lamps required in similar flow-sized conventional UV systems—and only about 2kw of power.
Decrease Membrane Treatment Capital And O&M Costs With Optimum Flux Rates
Despite a global effort to standardize units of measure to the metric system, the water treatment industry still follows the U.S. trend in resisting that directive by referring to water volumes in treatment plants as gallons per day (GPD). While achieving a specified permeate GPD is certainly important in overall membrane plant design, production capacity has absolutely nothing to do with determining optimal methods of treating site-specific feedwaters and offers no indication of potential membrane fouling rates and related maintenance costs. To evaluate these factors, knowledgeable professionals rely on membrane flux rates as the key consideration in achieving optimal system design and operation. By Harold G. Fravel Jr., Executive Director, American Membrane Technology Association and Karen Lindsey, VP, Avista Technologies, Inc.
DRINKING WATER TREATMENT NEWS
DRINKING WATER TREATMENT VIDEOSMore From Drinking Water Treatment Videos
ABOUT DRINKING WATER TREATMENT
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.