Biological Drinking Water Treatment: Challenges And Potential
Biological Drinking Water Treatment: Challenges And Potential

The continuous struggle to remediate contaminated natural waters, and to reduce the impact of emerging challenges on the supply of safe potable water are key drivers for research and development in the global water industry today.

<em>Microcystin</em> Concentrations Following Treatments Of Harmful Algal Blooms
Microcystin Concentrations Following Treatments Of Harmful Algal Blooms
Microcystin producing cyanobacteria blooms were sampled and tested from an Illinois reservoir, an Ohio reservoir and a Michigan lake.
The Question: Should the fear of "releasing" microcystin deter an algaecide application?
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Capital Controls&reg; CHLOR-A-VAC&reg; Series 1420 Chemical Industion Unit Capital Controls® CHLOR-A-VAC® Series 1420 Chemical Industion Unit

The Series 1420 CHLOR-A-VAC® affords high efficiency addition and mixing of gases and liquid chemicals resulting in substantial chemical cost savings.

E33 Adsorption Systems E33 Adsorption Systems

In the adsorption process, contaminants break their bond with the water molecules and chemically adhere to a filter media. This is typically accomplished by directing the water flow through pressure vessels containing the filter media at a rate that allows enough contact time for adsorption to occur. AdEdge Water Technologies’ Bayoxide E33 adsorption media is the industry standard for arsenic removal. This granular ferric oxide media reduces up to 99% total arsenic, including both Arsenic (III) and Arsenic (V).

ClorTec&reg; On-Site Sodium Hypochlorite Generation Systems MCT Series ClorTec® On-Site Sodium Hypochlorite Generation Systems MCT Series

ClorTec MCT systems easily control sodium hypochlorite production and provide a powerful disinfection method for any application. MCT systems meet requirements for 12–36 lb/day (5.4–16.3 kg/ day) chlorine equivalent. Applications include potable water, wastewater, odor and corrosion control, cooling towers, oxidation and swimming pool disinfection.

Ozone Generation System Ozone Generation System

In order to generate ozone efficiently using the silent discharge technology, METAWATER offers highly accurate and ultra narrow discharge gap dielectrics with enhanced cooling system. Our Micro Gap™ dielectrics, consisting of 'Robust and Durable' glass lined stainless steel tube, permit the cooling of "Both the outer & inner dielectrics" by conditioned cooling water resulting in significant increase in the rate of heat removal, thus increasing ozone production performance.

PFOA And PFOS Remediation PFOA And PFOS Remediation

Perfluoroalkyl Compounds: Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Treatment.

Ecoray&reg; Upgrade Kits Ecoray® Upgrade Kits

Stay compliant and slash your energy costs by 30% with Ecoray Upgrade Kits.

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Safer Disinfection With Peracetic Acid Safer Disinfection With Peracetic Acid

John Maziuk, Technical Development Manager at Solvay Chemicals, discusses the benefits of peracetic acid over other wastewater and stormwater disinfection methods, including no harmful byproducts, a simpler process, and a longer shelf life.

The Growth Of A Carbon Company The Growth Of A Carbon Company

Jacobi Carbons Inc., the largest worldwide manufacturer of coconut shell activated carbon, will be celebrating it’s 100th birthday in 2016.

Combating Chromium The Smart Way Combating Chromium The Smart Way

Ever since Erin Brockovich discovered hexavalent chromium in California’s water supply in the early ‘90s, the contaminant has been on the minds of treatment plant operators everywhere.

How Do You Build A Heavier Floc And Let It Sink And Settle Faster? How Do You Build A Heavier Floc And Let It Sink And Settle Faster?

That’s a question that Jim Georger, regional sales manager with Kruger, a division of Veolia, discussed with Water Online Radio recently.

On Site Hydrogen Peroxide Generation for Advanced Oxidation Process On Site Hydrogen Peroxide Generation for Advanced Oxidation Process

Vitamins, steroids and hormones are all emerging as contaminants being detected in drinking water supplies. As Jon McClean, Chief Technology Officer with Neptune Benson explains in this Water Online Radio interview, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) add hydrogen peroxide in front of UV treatment to eradicate contamination.

LA Story: Advanced Treatment, Reuse Saves Scarce Water Resources LA Story: Advanced Treatment, Reuse Saves Scarce Water Resources

Officials in Los Angeles have grown tired of importing water, which is an expensive, unsustainable response to the region's persistent drought. The smarter solution, they concluded, is to reuse local resources through advanced purification and aquifer recharge. But how do you ensure safety and efficiency before committing to a treatment technology? A unique piloting tool from Xylem’s Wedeco brand offered the city clear answers.

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Safeguarding Source Water: How Online Monitoring Of Algae Leads To Data-Driven Decisions Safeguarding Source Water: How Online Monitoring Of Algae Leads To Data-Driven Decisions

Join Dr. Arash Zamyadi, UNSW Australia, and Kevin Simpson, YSI on July 28 at 2:00 EST for a webinar in which they will discuss recent work deploying optical sensing technology to monitor for harmful algae blooms (HAB’s) in raw water.

Leopold® FilterWorx® Overview Leopold® FilterWorx® Overview

FilterWorx® is a complete water filtration system engineered to improve efficiency and reliability. Ideally suited for applications such as potable drinking water treatment, tertiary wastewater treatment, nutrient removal in water or wastewater, pretreatment prior to low-pressure membrane systems, and RO membrane desalination pretreatment, FilterWorx performance filters feature a flat-bottom flume, fiberglass backwash water troughs, engineered media, three types of underdrains, and media retainers in two different sizes. In addition, FilterWorx control systems provide the longest filtration run cycles to reduce energy consumption and wastewater generation, thereby lowering operating costs.

WEDECO PRO<sub>3</sub>MIX Overview WEDECO PRO3MIX Overview

The PRO3MIX bromate control system is an intelligent ozone-based advanced oxidation process (AOP) introduction and reaction system enabling ozone treatment in a compact and intelligent design to mitigate bromate formation even in cases of high level bromide in source water. This short animated overview walks the reader through the various disinfection points of the process.

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The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.

There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.

The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.

The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.

Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.

A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.

Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.

Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits.  Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.

Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).