CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS

Customized Calcium Hypochlorite System Steps Up To The Challenge

Rainbow Water District has 2,400 service connections serving approximately 6,400 customers in the unincorporated portion of Springfield, OR. The district, approximately 100 miles south of Portland, is served by excellent quality groundwater from 10 wells at four well fields near the McKenzie River.

  • 4-Log Virus Inactivation With UV Treatment
    4-Log Virus Inactivation With UV Treatment

    The Hall Road Well Station — located in Abington, Pennsylvania — is designed to extract and treat 1.5 million gallons per day (MGD) of water from the Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers. It is part of a network of groundwater extraction wells owned and operated by Aqua-America Pennsylvania (Aqua PA). Aqua PA determined that UV technology was the best approach for meeting the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection regulations for 4-log virus treatment of groundwater. This case study will show you why they chose the TrojanUVSwift™SC.

  • Genuine TrojanUV3000Plus Lamps Vs. Non-Genuine Lamps: A Side-By-Side Comparison (Case Study)
    Genuine TrojanUV3000Plus Lamps Vs. Non-Genuine Lamps: A Side-By-Side Comparison (Case Study)

    Perform Lamp Output And Aging Study On Trojan UV3000™ Lamps And Non-Genuine G64T5 Low Pressure UV Lamps

  • Water Plant Applies Colorimetric Chlorine Analyzer To Accurately Measure Proper Chloramination
    Water Plant Applies Colorimetric Chlorine Analyzer To Accurately Measure Proper Chloramination

    The North Shore Water Commission located in Glendale Wisconsin is a conventional water treatment facility that receives its influent from Lake Michigan. At the intake, chemical treatment is applied for mussel control and the water is pumped to the treatment plant 1 mile away. By Kevin Forsman

  • MEMCOR® Continuous Microfiltration System Maximizes Water Resources For The City Of Scottsdale, Arizona
    MEMCOR® Continuous Microfiltration System Maximizes Water Resources For The City Of Scottsdale, Arizona

    The desert community of Scottsdale, Arizona had no natural surface water sources and a decreasing groundwater supply. Scottsdale had historically treated and disposed of its wastewater.

  • UV Eliminates Cryptosporidium Issues In The Heartland
    UV Eliminates Cryptosporidium Issues In The Heartland

    The City of Moline is now adding validated UV systems to provide an additional barrier for the filtered water, which will improve water quality and ensure that none of the chlorine tolerant organisms such as Cryptosporidium is present. The City of Moline is located in the heart of the Midwest, tucked between the banks of the Mississippi and Rock River in Rock Island.  Moline is one of four cities that make up the Quad Cities that include Rock Island, Illinois and Bettendorf and Davenport Iowa.

  • UV Disinfection: An Ideal Solution For One Beverage Bottler
    UV Disinfection: An Ideal Solution For One Beverage Bottler

    A well known bottler of teas and sports drinks uses a dose-paced UV system from ETS to accommodate changes in flow and water quality when switching between water sources.

  • An Alternative Mathematical Model For Oxygen Transfer Evaluation In Clean Water
    An Alternative Mathematical Model For Oxygen Transfer Evaluation In Clean Water

    Energy consumption from aeration system is a biggest part of the total energy cost in wastewater treatment plant and account for as much as 60% of the energy consumption for the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is very important to know how effective the aeration system and significant attention has been paid to development and upgrade of standard method for quantifying oxygen transfer efficiency of the aeration system. By Yanjun (John) He, PE, BCEE, Kruger Inc.

  • Theoretical Operation Of High-Efficiency Ultraviolet Water Treatment Chamber
    Theoretical Operation Of High-Efficiency Ultraviolet Water Treatment Chamber

    The NeoTech Aqua ReFleX™ water purification chambers are the most efficient and compact units available today. They require an order of magnitude less energy and less than 25% of the system volume to achieve the same or better purification result as competing chambers. This is the first in a series of three white papers explaining the benefits of these systems. By J. R. Cooper, Ph.D, NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.

  • Bring On The Bacteria: Conventional Treatment Methods Not Enough To Produce Safe Drinking Water
    Bring On The Bacteria: Conventional Treatment Methods Not Enough To Produce Safe Drinking Water

    Around the world there are guidelines and regulations regarding the quality of drinking water distributed by water treatment plants. These guidelines/regulations are sometimes national, such as U.S. regulations and Canadian guidelines.

  • Guaynabo WTP In Puerto Rico Saves Thousands With UV 254 Monitoring Package
    Guaynabo WTP In Puerto Rico Saves Thousands With UV 254 Monitoring Package

    Dealing with fluctuating water sources is not an easy task for plant operators. Seasonal variation, heavy rain fall or accidental contamination events change the raw water quality, requiring immediate attention. This is a familiar scenario for Facility Manager, Nancy Ma. Cáceres Acosta at the Los Filtros Water Treatment Plant in Puerto Rico. She has been producing highquality water for 256,000 local residents, receiving surface water from the Guaynabo and Bayamon River

  • The Basics Of Disinfection
    The Basics Of Disinfection

    From utility water to wastewater, whether used in industrial processes or for drinking, disinfection plays a prominent role in providing safe and useable water. Water free from pathogens and other microorganisms ensures processes run efficiently and people are kept safe from disease. By Harland R Pond, Business Development Manager – Water Treatment

  • Ohio Water Plant Finds Effective Alternative To Chlorine Gas
    Ohio Water Plant Finds Effective Alternative To Chlorine Gas

    For many years, Huber Heights, OH, searched for an effective and affordable way to eliminate gaseous chlorine (Cl2) use at its 4.46 MGD Needmore Road Water Treatment Plant. An innovative dry calcium hypochlorite makeup and delivery system now provides a safer disinfection method for operators and the community.

Treatment Of Cyanotoxins In Drinking Water With Activated Carbon

Recently, cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins have become a high profile drinking water quality concern in both the United States and abroad. The combination of weather conditions, agricultural phosphate runoff, and other factors has produced water conditions that have favored the formation of cyanobacteria in surface water supplies.

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CONTAMINANT REMOVAL PRODUCTS

biottta™ Biotreatment Packaged Plants

biottta™ Biotreatment Packaged Plants

Groundwater is the primary water source for most communities in North America. biottta™ leverages nature to offer an affordable and sustainable solution for wellhead treatment of inorganic and organic contaminants.

UV Systems For Corrosive Media

UV Systems For Corrosive Media

Xylem offers long disinfection experience and a broad portfolio of UV solutions specially for corrosive media like saltwater.

NeoTech D322™

NeoTech D322™

The NeoTech D322™ is specially designed to disinfect water and is an essential component in advanced oxidation processes.

WEDECO MiPRO Advanced Oxidation Solutions

WEDECO MiPRO Advanced Oxidation Solutions

Xylem’s WEDECO MiPRO™ solution is based on three key components: Ozone, Hydrogen Peroxide, and UV light. By combining these technologies, flexible oxidation solutions for individual micropollutant requirements are available.

ETS-UV for Drinking Water Disinfection

ETS-UV for Drinking Water Disinfection

The ETS range of drinking water UV systems are modeled using CFD and FEA emulation tools and have been independently validated to demonstrate performance under a variety of operating conditions.

Patriot™ Series

Patriot™ Series

NeoTech Aqua Solutions’ Patriot Series utilizes D438 chamber technology in a stacked and manifolded configuration to support larger flow volumes. By integrating NeoTech Aqua’s patented ReFleX chamber technology, Patriot systems provide the most efficient and versatile UV water treatment equipment available for large volume users. Further, when configured as an n+1 design, the NeoTech Aqua’s Patriot systems meet most redundancy requirements.

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DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL PODCASTS

Chromium-6 Treatment Becomes Key Issue Following California Regulations

Chromium-6 Treatment Becomes Key Issue Following California Regulations

With water scarcity driving populations to new or previously abandoned water sources out West, Chromium-6 is becoming a significant treatment issue. 

The Pros And Cons Of Ion Exchange Versus Membrane Technology

The Pros And Cons Of Ion Exchange Versus Membrane Technology

Frank Caligiuri, Sales Manager for Hungerford & Terry, discusses the merits of ion exchange versus membrane technology with a focus on the constituents being removed

The Reward Of Risk: New Tech Pays Off

The Reward Of Risk: New Tech Pays Off

The engineering community can sometimes be weary of trying anything other than the technologies they are already accustomed to, says Rich Cavagnaro of Adedge, a purification technology company with a focus on nitrates and radionuclides.

Safer Disinfection With Peracetic Acid

Safer Disinfection With Peracetic Acid

John Maziuk, Technical Development Manager at Solvay Chemicals, discusses the benefits of peracetic acid over other wastewater and stormwater disinfection methods, including no harmful byproducts, a simpler process, and a longer shelf life.

The Value Of Wastewater: Closed Vessel UV Disinfection For Water Reuse

The Value Of Wastewater: Closed Vessel UV Disinfection For Water Reuse

Jon McClean, President of Engineered Treatment Systems (ETS), explains how UV disinfection of wastewater provides an effective and sustainable solution to growing water shortages.

Advanced Water Treatment Solutions To Solve The Modern Treatment Puzzle

Advanced Water Treatment Solutions To Solve The Modern Treatment Puzzle

Advanced treatment solutions continue to evolve as 1,4-Dioxin, N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) removal and Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) appear on the regulatory horizon. Many times, advanced treatment requires combinations of different products in the treatment process.

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CONTAMINANT REMOVAL VIDEOS

MIOX Flowback Water Disinfection For Recycle

MIOX Flowback Water Disinfection For Recycle

Watch as MIOX’s patented mixed oxidant technology dramatically changes, and treats hydraulic fracturing flowback water on-the-fly. MIOX’s water treatment solution has a small footprint, and utilizes only salt and electricity which helps provide low treatment costs.

biottta Biotreatment Pilot Case Study

biottta Biotreatment Pilot Case Study

The Lincoln Pipestone Rural Water District in Minnesota had a high level of both nitrate and manganese in the groundwater. Piloting of the biottta treatment solution proved to be successful.

Innovation Spotlight: Real Tech Water Purification Technology

Innovation Spotlight: Real Tech Water Purification Technology

Real Tech Inc. is the subject of this Ontario Innovation spotlight, which details the company's cost-effective technologies to detect reactive organic matter in water and prevent disinfection byproducts (DBPs).

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ABOUT

The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.

There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.

The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.

The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.

Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.

A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.

Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.

Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits.  Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.

Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).