The Silicon Valley Advanced Water Purification Center project provides expanded reuse opportunities, increased sustainability, and promise for the future.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a large group of carbon‐based chemical compounds that evaporate easily at room temperature. Certain VOCs are federally regulated substances in drinking water.
The NeoTech Aqua ReFleX™ water purification chambers are the most efficient and compact units available today. They require an order of magnitude less energy and less than 25% of the system volume to achieve the same or better purification result as competing chambers. This is the first in a series of three white papers explaining the benefits of these systems. By J. R. Cooper, Ph.D, NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.
Xylem TotalCare Condition Audit, an inspection and recommendation program that helps plant operators find ways to lower maintenance costs by identifying inefficiencies in the operation of water and wastewater equipment, was elected to audit the American Canyon Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in California.
Chromium is a naturally occurring metal common in the earth’s crust. There are multiple forms of chromium, and one form, called chromium‐3, is actually a required nutrient for human health, in the right amount.
Together, two water treatment plants in Boulder, CO, have the capacity to treat 55 million gallons per day (MGD). When severe drought conditions restricted the source water supply of the Betasso WTP, the city decided to expand the capacity of the Boulder Reservoir Water Treatment Plant (WTP).
Biofilm has adverse effects on all types of instruments, sensors, and equipment used in power plants, food and beverage production plants, desalination facilities, paper mills, and marine environments. This includes growth on pipelines, tanks, heat exchangers, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, and other equipment. Biofilms can cause reduction of heat transfer, increased pressure drop and corrosion of metallic surfaces, and many forms of contamination.
Around the world there are guidelines and regulations regarding the quality of drinking water distributed by water treatment plants. These guidelines/regulations are sometimes national, such as U.S. regulations and Canadian guidelines.
Arsenic is a common element in the earth’s crust, natural groundwater, and even the human body. It is an odorless and tasteless semi-metal (metalloid) that is naturally present in aquifers throughout the U.S. and the world.
It’s well known the beneficial role that particular groups of microorganisms have in the food and beverage industry. Similarly are the beneficial aspects that either engineered or non-engineered biological treatment systems have in the drinking water production process.
This is the second in a series of three white papers describing the design and performance of the NeoTech Aqua ReFlex™ treatment chamber. The first describes in detail the theoretical basis for the very high efficiency demonstrated by the chamber. The third paper describes how this chamber design leads to some highly desirable operational advantages beyond just energy ad cost reduction. By J. R. Cooper, Ph. D. and Gwynne Cavender, NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.
The TrojanUVPhox™ installation at Tucson's Advanced Oxidation Process Water Treatment Facility treats 1,4-dioxane and produces water that is blended and then treated at the neighboring Tucson Airport Remediation Project facility. This purified water is supplied to nearly 50,000 end users.
Faced with a tight capital budget, a city in British Columbia required a new design for a water treatment plant capable of a maximum daily water production of 21 MPG during peak demand periods, with an ultimate demand of 29 MGD.
The groundwater that a southern Louisiana water utility supplies to local residents has traditionally carried a high amount of organic material and color. In the past, the organics were oxidized and broken down by chlorination, but this practice had gone out of favor due to production of disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as Trihalomethanes (THMs) and Haloacidic Acids (HAAs).
The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.
There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.
The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.
The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.
A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.
Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.
Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits. Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.
Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).