DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL
CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
The Richland Special Utility District found that naturally-occurring radionuclides in their raw water source exceeded Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL’s) for Gross Alpha Emitters and Combined Radium. The district selected Water Remediation Technology's Z-88 Radium Removal Process as a cost-effective solution to reduce the gross alpha and radium content. In this case study, learn how the water quality now successfully meets regulatory requirements.
Disinfection Performance Testing Of High-Efficiency Ultraviolet Water Treatment Chamber
This is the second in a series of three white papers describing the design and performance of the NeoTech Aqua ReFlex™ treatment chamber. The first describes in detail the theoretical basis for the very high efficiency demonstrated by the chamber. The third paper describes how this chamber design leads to some highly desirable operational advantages beyond just energy ad cost reduction. By J. R. Cooper, Ph. D. and Gwynne Cavender, NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.
Water Plant Applies Colorimetric Chlorine Analyzer To Accurately Measure Proper Chloramination
The North Shore Water Commission located in Glendale Wisconsin is a conventional water treatment facility that receives its influent from Lake Michigan. At the intake, chemical treatment is applied for mussel control and the water is pumped to the treatment plant 1 mile away. By Kevin Forsman
4-Log Virus Inactivation With UV Treatment
The Hall Road Well Station — located in Abington, Pennsylvania — is designed to extract and treat 1.5 million gallons per day (MGD) of water from the Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers. It is part of a network of groundwater extraction wells owned and operated by Aqua-America Pennsylvania (Aqua PA). Aqua PA determined that UV technology was the best approach for meeting the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection regulations for 4-log virus treatment of groundwater. This case study will show you why they chose the TrojanUVSwift™.
An Alternative Mathematical Model For Oxygen Transfer Evaluation In Clean Water
Energy consumption from aeration system is a biggest part of the total energy cost in wastewater treatment plant and account for as much as 60% of the energy consumption for the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is very important to know how effective the aeration system and significant attention has been paid to development and upgrade of standard method for quantifying oxygen transfer efficiency of the aeration system. By Yanjun (John) He, PE, BCEE, Kruger Inc.
CDOX® Demonstration – Large-Scale Drinking Water Facility
This brief memo will provide a snapshot of data and information from BlueInGreen’s most recent CDOX® success at a 120 MGD municipal water treatment plant in the Midwest.
The Role Of UV In Solving Next-Generation Water Challenges
The global market for water treatment technologies is growing and becoming increasingly important as the quality and quantity of freshwater sources are stressed and the link between fresh water sources and wastewater — returned to the environment — is more and more obvious. By Rick VanSant, President & CEO, UV Pure Technologies, Inc.
Model Behavior: Evaluating Instrumentation And Control In The Coagulation Process
An electrical engineer does the math on coagulation process control, using computational modeling to determine best practices.
The Basics Of Disinfection
From utility water to wastewater, whether used in industrial processes or for drinking, disinfection plays a prominent role in providing safe and useable water. Water free from pathogens and other microorganisms ensures processes run efficiently and people are kept safe from disease. By Harland R Pond, Business Development Manager – Water Treatment
Solving A Taste and Odor Problem Step By Step (Article)
The City of Alliance Ohio’s water system has experienced annual Taste and Odor (T&O) events since the mid 1950’s, when the first of two reservoirs, Deer Creek Reservoir, was placed into service. Nutrient contaminants, in particular phosphorous, in the watershed accumulate in the reservoirs causing algal blooms. By Terry Keep of TrojanUV, Said Abou Abdallah of Arcadis, and Dr. Dean Reynolds, Department of Water Treatment City of Alliance, Ohio
Arsenic Removed From Drinking Water With Iron Oxide Adsorption Treatment
When high levels of arsenic were found in the drinking water in the community of Alto Lampa outside of Santiago de Chile, municipal water provider Aguas Adinas faced a predicament. AdEdge Water Technologies was contacted to design a treatment approach. This case study describes how iron oxide adsorption helped Alto Lampa reduce arsenic levels in treated water to non-detectable concentrations.
UV Disinfection: An Ideal Solution For One Beverage Bottler
A well known bottler of teas and sports drinks uses a dose-paced UV system from ETS to accommodate changes in flow and water quality when switching between water sources.
Genuine TrojanUV3000Plus Lamps Vs. Non-Genuine Lamps: A Side-By-Side Comparison (Case Study)
Perform Lamp Output And Aging Study On Trojan UV3000™ Lamps And Non-Genuine G64T5 Low Pressure UV Lamps
New York City is home to more than 8 million people, making it the most populous city in the United States. The majority of New York's drinking water is supplied by the Catskill/Delaware watershed, located approximately 100 miles outside the city. Historically, NYC has not filtered the water from this system, nor did they require any additional barriers to microbial contaminants due to the pristine nature of the watershed.
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CONTAMINANT REMOVAL APPLICATION NOTES
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The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.
There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.
The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.
The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.
A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.
Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.
Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits. Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.
Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).