DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL
CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
The NeoTech Aqua ReFleX™ water purification chambers are the most efficient and compact units available today. They require an order of magnitude less energy and less than 25% of the system volume to achieve the same or better purification result as competing chambers. This is the first in a series of three white papers explaining the benefits of these systems. By J. R. Cooper, Ph.D, NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.
Surface Water Treatment & LT2 Compliance - Surprise, Arizona (Case Study)
The White Tanks Regional Water Treatment Facility (White Tanks) is located in Surprise, Arizona, and treats surface water from the Colorado River that is delivered by a 336 mile (540 kilometer) man-made canal.
Model Behavior: Evaluating Instrumentation And Control In The Coagulation Process
An electrical engineer does the math on coagulation process control, using computational modeling to determine best practices.
Ion Exchange: A Viable Water Treatment Alternative To Membranes
Five decades ago, ion exchange using charged resins was one of two processes used in the water industry for water treatment.
Endocrine Disrupting Compounds And Their Treatment
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) are a subset of chemicals identified as contaminants of emerging concern, or “CECs.” EDCs are chemicals that can affect the endocrine (hormonal) systems of humans and animals. Hormones regulate reproduction, growth, and behavior. Anything that can potentially disrupt those functions must be studied carefully.
The UV Uprising: How UV Disinfection Will Claw Its Way To Prominence
Chlorination in all of its forms — gas, liquid, or solid — has been the primary way for treatment plants to disinfect the treated wastewater. The treatment plants that use gas chlorination must face federal regulatory oversight in the form of a Risk Management Program (RMP). Liquid chlorine plants trade in the regulatory oversight for a more expensive and less effective product. While chlorine in its solid form is good for small treatment facilities known as package plants (named for their mobility). However, ultraviolet (UV) technology is rapidly altering the landscape of disinfection throughout the industry.
The Role Of UV In Solving Next-Generation Water Challenges
The global market for water treatment technologies is growing and becoming increasingly important as the quality and quantity of freshwater sources are stressed and the link between fresh water sources and wastewater — returned to the environment — is more and more obvious. By Rick VanSant, President & CEO, UV Pure Technologies, Inc.
GAC Solution For Ohio's Most Challenging Water
Over the course of many years the City of Celina, Ohio has been challenged with supplying drinking water to the 11,647 residents of the city and the East Jefferson District.
UV Disinfection: An Ideal Solution For One Beverage Bottler
A well known bottler of teas and sports drinks uses a dose-paced UV system from ETS to accommodate changes in flow and water quality when switching between water sources.
Arsenic Removed From Drinking Water With Iron Oxide Adsorption Treatment
When high levels of arsenic were found in the drinking water in the community of Alto Lampa outside of Santiago de Chile, municipal water provider Aguas Adinas faced a predicament. AdEdge Water Technologies was contacted to design a treatment approach. This case study describes how iron oxide adsorption helped Alto Lampa reduce arsenic levels in treated water to non-detectable concentrations.
MIOX Achieves Increased Efficacy Against Biofilm And Legionella Vs. Common Biocides
Comparative disinfection studies using 3 oxidizing biocides and 3 commonly used non-oxidizing biocides against Legionella pneumophilia.
Disinfection Performance Testing Of High-Efficiency Ultraviolet Water Treatment Chamber
This is the second in a series of three white papers describing the design and performance of the NeoTech Aqua ReFlex™ treatment chamber. The first describes in detail the theoretical basis for the very high efficiency demonstrated by the chamber. The third paper describes how this chamber design leads to some highly desirable operational advantages beyond just energy ad cost reduction. By J. R. Cooper, Ph. D. and Gwynne Cavender, NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.
Known For “Healing Waters,” Pagosa Springs Restores Its Potable Water System With Help From SolarBee® Mixers
Located in the high desert plateau of southwestern Colorado, Pagosa Springs is famous for its geothermal hot springs, which draw visitors worldwide to soak in the mineral-rich water. The Utes called the sulfur springs “Pah-gosah,” meaning “healing waters.” You might say the town’s potable water system is healed now as well.
The desert community of Scottsdale, Arizona had no natural surface water sources and a decreasing groundwater supply. Scottsdale had historically treated and disposed of its wastewater.
CONTAMINANT REMOVAL PRODUCTSMore Products
DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL PODCASTSMore Podcasts
CONTAMINANT REMOVAL APPLICATION NOTES
CONTAMINANT REMOVAL VIDEOSMore Videos
The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.
There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.
The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.
The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.
A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.
Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.
Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits. Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.
Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).