CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
With the town of Johnstown, CO's, water treatment plant began operating its circular clarifier systems at maximum capacity to meet summer peak demand rates, consultants recommeded increasing plant capacity and using dissolved air flotation technology for their clarification process.
UV Disinfection: An Ideal Solution For One Beverage Bottler
A well known bottler of teas and sports drinks uses a dose-paced UV system from ETS to accommodate changes in flow and water quality when switching between water sources.
Targeted Algal Management Plan To Address Taste And Odor Problem
Lake John Hay is located six miles northwest of Salem, Indiana and is used for drinking water and tournament and recreational fishing. With an average depth of 14-15 feet, it is ideal for algae and plant growth. The persistent, recurring algae blooms was causing taste and odor problems, which led to frequent complaints.
4-Log Virus Inactivation - Abington, Pennsylvania (Case Study)
The Hall Road Well Station — located in Abington, Pennsylvania — is designed to extract and treat 1.5 million gallons per day (MGD) of water from the Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers. It is part of a network of groundwater extraction wells owned and operated by Aqua-America Pennsylvania (Aqua PA). Aqua PA determined that UV technology was the best approach for meeting the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection regulations for 4-log virus treatment of groundwater. This case study will show you why they chose the TrojanUVSwift™SC.
On-Site Chlorine Generation Replaces Conventional Chlorine Gas Feed System In Scottsdale AZ
The city of Scottsdale, Arizona, a community of more than 200,000 residents was historically totally dependent on groundwater resources. By the mid 1980’s, the city began putting together a multi-faceted water resource program to provide the community with a long-term sustainable water supply.
Dissolved Air Flotation Technology Nearly Doubles Treatment Capacity
Faced with a tight capital budget, a city in British Columbia required a new design for a water treatment plant capable of a maximum daily water production of 21 MPG during peak demand periods, with an ultimate demand of 29 MGD.
Theoretical Operation Of High-Efficiency Ultraviolet Water Treatment Chamber
The NeoTech Aqua ReFleX™ water purification chambers are the most efficient and compact units available today. They require an order of magnitude less energy and less than 25% of the system volume to achieve the same or better purification result as competing chambers. This is the first in a series of three white papers explaining the benefits of these systems. By J. R. Cooper, Ph.D, NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.
Small UV Plant Is Designed To Address Cultural And Safe Drinking Water Needs Cost-Effectively
BI Pure Water worked with University of British Columbia researchers and Lytton First Nation to develop a water disinfection system that addresses the needs of native communities, both cultural values as well as the basic necessity of clean drinking water.
EPA’s Upcoming Regulation On Strontium — What You Need To Know
In October, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) made a preliminary determination to regulate strontium in the nation's drinking water.
Sulfate Removal Technologies: A Review
Sulfate concentrations in water have come under increasing scrutiny from regulatory authorities over the past two decades.
UV Disinfection Produces Highly Purified Water In Silicon Valley
With diminished rainfall, a depleted aquifer basin, near-empty recharge ponds, and an earthquake-vulnerable aqueduct system, the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) in San Jose, CA, required additional water supplies to maintain regional economic vitality for its growing community.
Ozone Disinfection System Provides Second Stage Treatment For Water Treatment Plant
Tampa Bay Water’s state-of-the-art surface water treatment plant has provided high-quality drinking water to the Tampa Bay region.
The Increasing Role That Filtration And UV Disinfection Plays In Cooling Towers
An increasing number of technology industries are turning to cooling towers to remove excess heat from buildings or processes. Server farms or server clusters are typically located between the system switches and the routers, and the removal of heat from these facilities is critical to their optimal function.
Granular activated carbon can provide an effective barrier defense against chemical spills into our drinking water sources. Read this white paper describing how to put GAC to work defending your source waters.
CONTAMINANT REMOVAL PRODUCTSMore Products
DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL PODCASTSMore Podcasts
CONTAMINANT REMOVAL APPLICATION NOTES
CONTAMINANT REMOVAL VIDEOSMore Videos
The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.
There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.
The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.
The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.
A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.
Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.
Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits. Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.
Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).