DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL
CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
For many years, Huber Heights, OH, searched for an effective and affordable way to eliminate gaseous chlorine (Cl2) use at its 4.46 MGD Needmore Road Water Treatment Plant. An innovative dry calcium hypochlorite makeup and delivery system now provides a safer disinfection method for operators and the community.
Top 10 Considerations When Converting To On-Site Hypochlorite
Transporting pure salt - the raw material needed to generate sodium hypochlorite onsite – is more cost effective, stable, and safer, than transporting and storing bulk sodium hypochlorite, or gaseous/liquid chlorine cylinders from local chemical suppliers. The conversion to on-site hypochlorite generation can be achieved by adhering to these design guidelines.
4-Log Virus Inactivation With UV Treatment
The Hall Road Well Station — located in Abington, Pennsylvania — is designed to extract and treat 1.5 million gallons per day (MGD) of water from the Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers. It is part of a network of groundwater extraction wells owned and operated by Aqua-America Pennsylvania (Aqua PA). Aqua PA determined that UV technology was the best approach for meeting the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection regulations for 4-log virus treatment of groundwater. This case study will show you why they chose the TrojanUVSwift™SC.
On-Site Chlorine Generation Replaces Conventional Chlorine Gas Feed System In Scottsdale AZ
The city of Scottsdale, Arizona, a community of more than 200,000 residents was historically totally dependent on groundwater resources. By the mid 1980’s, the city began putting together a multi-faceted water resource program to provide the community with a long-term sustainable water supply.
UV Eliminates Cryptosporidium Issues In The Heartland
The City of Moline is now adding validated UV systems to provide an additional barrier for the filtered water, which will improve water quality and ensure that none of the chlorine tolerant organisms such as Cryptosporidium is present. The City of Moline is located in the heart of the Midwest, tucked between the banks of the Mississippi and Rock River in Rock Island. Moline is one of four cities that make up the Quad Cities that include Rock Island, Illinois and Bettendorf and Davenport Iowa.
Arsenic Removed From Drinking Water With Iron Oxide Adsorption Treatment
When high levels of arsenic were found in the drinking water in the community of Alto Lampa outside of Santiago de Chile, municipal water provider Aguas Adinas faced a predicament. AdEdge Water Technologies was contacted to design a treatment approach. This case study describes how iron oxide adsorption helped Alto Lampa reduce arsenic levels in treated water to non-detectable concentrations.
Drinking Water Disinfection: Tianjin, China (Case Study)
Favorable reviews of UV technology in wastewater applications influenced Tianjin Economic Development Area (TEDA) Water Supply General Company to investigate the potential of using UV for drinking water applications at one of its water treatment plants. With no previous UV installations for drinking water disinfection in the country, TEDA's process of selecting a UV manufacturer was stringent. We are honored that they chose us and our TrojanUVSwift™ system.
The UV Uprising: How UV Disinfection Will Claw Its Way To Prominence
Chlorination in all of its forms — gas, liquid, or solid — has been the primary way for treatment plants to disinfect the treated wastewater. The treatment plants that use gas chlorination must face federal regulatory oversight in the form of a Risk Management Program (RMP). Liquid chlorine plants trade in the regulatory oversight for a more expensive and less effective product. While chlorine in its solid form is good for small treatment facilities known as package plants (named for their mobility). However, ultraviolet (UV) technology is rapidly altering the landscape of disinfection throughout the industry. By Sheldon Primus, MPA, COSS
GAC Solution For Ohio's Most Challenging Water
Over the course of many years the City of Celina, Ohio has been challenged with supplying drinking water to the 11,647 residents of the city and the East Jefferson District.
Water Plant Applies Colorimetric Chlorine Analyzer To Accurately Measure Proper Chloramination
The North Shore Water Commission located in Glendale Wisconsin is a conventional water treatment facility that receives its influent from Lake Michigan. At the intake, chemical treatment is applied for mussel control and the water is pumped to the treatment plant 1 mile away. By Kevin Forsman
Guaynabo WTP In Puerto Rico Saves Thousands With UV 254 Monitoring Package
Dealing with fluctuating water sources is not an easy task for plant operators. Seasonal variation, heavy rain fall or accidental contamination events change the raw water quality, requiring immediate attention. This is a familiar scenario for Facility Manager, Nancy Ma. Cáceres Acosta at the Los Filtros Water Treatment Plant in Puerto Rico. She has been producing highquality water for 256,000 local residents, receiving surface water from the Guaynabo and Bayamon River
The Role Of UV In Solving Next-Generation Water Challenges
The global market for water treatment technologies is growing and becoming increasingly important as the quality and quantity of freshwater sources are stressed and the link between fresh water sources and wastewater — returned to the environment — is more and more obvious. By Rick VanSant, President & CEO, UV Pure Technologies, Inc.
Theoretical Operation Of High-Efficiency Ultraviolet Water Treatment Chamber
The NeoTech Aqua ReFleX™ water purification chambers are the most efficient and compact units available today. They require an order of magnitude less energy and less than 25% of the system volume to achieve the same or better purification result as competing chambers. This is the first in a series of three white papers explaining the benefits of these systems. By J. R. Cooper, Ph.D, NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.
Around the world there are guidelines and regulations regarding the quality of drinking water distributed by water treatment plants. These guidelines/regulations are sometimes national, such as U.S. regulations and Canadian guidelines.
CONTAMINANT REMOVAL PRODUCTSMore Products
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CONTAMINANT REMOVAL APPLICATION NOTES
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The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.
There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.
The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.
The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.
A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.
Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.
Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits. Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.
Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).