CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS

Solving A Taste and Odor Problem Step By Step (Article)

The City of Alliance Ohio’s water system has experienced annual Taste and Odor (T&O) events since the mid 1950’s, when the first of two reservoirs, Deer Creek Reservoir, was placed into service. Nutrient contaminants, in particular phosphorous, in the watershed accumulate in the reservoirs causing algal blooms. By Terry Keep of TrojanUV, Said Abou Abdallah of Arcadis, and Dr. Dean Reynolds, Department of Water Treatment City of Alliance, Ohio

  • Water Plant Applies Colorimetric Chlorine Analyzer To Accurately Measure Proper Chloramination
    Water Plant Applies Colorimetric Chlorine Analyzer To Accurately Measure Proper Chloramination

    The North Shore Water Commission located in Glendale Wisconsin is a conventional water treatment facility that receives its influent from Lake Michigan. At the intake, chemical treatment is applied for mussel control and the water is pumped to the treatment plant 1 mile away. By Kevin Forsman

  • Granular Activated Carbon As A Barrier Against Chemical Spills
    Granular Activated Carbon As A Barrier Against Chemical Spills

    Granular activated carbon can provide an effective barrier defense against chemical spills into our drinking water sources. Read this white paper describing how to put GAC to work defending your source waters.

  • MEMCOR® Continuous Microfiltration System Maximizes Water Resources For The City Of Scottsdale, Arizona
    MEMCOR® Continuous Microfiltration System Maximizes Water Resources For The City Of Scottsdale, Arizona

    The desert community of Scottsdale, Arizona had no natural surface water sources and a decreasing groundwater supply. Scottsdale had historically treated and disposed of its wastewater.

  • Surface Water Treatment & LT2 Compliance - Surprise, Arizona (Case Study)
    Surface Water Treatment & LT2 Compliance - Surprise, Arizona (Case Study)

    The White Tanks Regional Water Treatment Facility (White Tanks) is located in Surprise, Arizona, and treats surface water from the Colorado River that is delivered by a 336 mile (540 kilometer) man-made canal.

  • Top 10 Considerations When Converting To On-Site Hypochlorite
    Top 10 Considerations When Converting To On-Site Hypochlorite

    Transporting pure salt - the raw material needed to generate sodium hypochlorite onsite – is more cost effective, stable, and safer, than transporting and storing bulk sodium hypochlorite, or gaseous/liquid chlorine cylinders from local chemical suppliers. The conversion to on-site hypochlorite generation can be achieved by adhering to these design guidelines.

  • Municipality Removes Biofilm, Improves Water Quality, Lowers Dosage With MIOX
    Municipality Removes Biofilm, Improves Water Quality, Lowers Dosage With MIOX

    Looking to reduce potential disinfection byproducts issues that new and difficult regulations were requiring, a Tennessee municipality began investigating alternative water treatment disinfection methods in an effort to reduce the potential liability (RMP) involved with using and storing gas chlorine. Within months of switching to a mix of oxidants (MOS), a difference was noted in the systems residual, residual was no longer dead spotting in low flow areas, and much higher residual was noted in areas that had been difficult to maintain At the end of the first year of operation the municipality had also documented a reduction in their disinfection byproducts formations, specifically both TTHMs and HAAs, which were both reduced by 50% in direct comparison with the quarterly results from the previous year.

  • Model Behavior: Evaluating Instrumentation And Control In The Coagulation Process
    Model Behavior: Evaluating Instrumentation And Control In The Coagulation Process

    An electrical engineer does the math on coagulation process control, using computational modeling to determine best practices.

  • Customized Calcium Hypochlorite System Steps Up To The Challenge
    Customized Calcium Hypochlorite System Steps Up To The Challenge

    Rainbow Water District has 2,400 service connections serving approximately 6,400 customers in the unincorporated portion of Springfield, OR. The district, approximately 100 miles south of Portland, is served by excellent quality groundwater from 10 wells at four well fields near the McKenzie River.

  • Small UV Plant Is Designed To Address Cultural And Safe Drinking Water Needs Cost-Effectively
    Small UV Plant Is Designed To Address Cultural And Safe Drinking Water Needs Cost-Effectively

    BI Pure Water worked with University of British Columbia researchers and Lytton First Nation to develop a water disinfection system that addresses the needs of native communities, both cultural values as well as the basic necessity of clean drinking water.

  • 4-Log Virus Inactivation With UV Treatment
    4-Log Virus Inactivation With UV Treatment

    The Hall Road Well Station — located in Abington, Pennsylvania — is designed to extract and treat 1.5 million gallons per day (MGD) of water from the Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers. It is part of a network of groundwater extraction wells owned and operated by Aqua-America Pennsylvania (Aqua PA). Aqua PA determined that UV technology was the best approach for meeting the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection regulations for 4-log virus treatment of groundwater. This case study will show you why they chose the TrojanUVSwift™SC.

  • MIOX Achieves Increased Efficacy Against Biofilm And Legionella Vs. Common Biocides

    Comparative disinfection studies using 3 oxidizing biocides and 3 commonly used non-oxidizing biocides against Legionella pneumophilia.

  • Disinfection Performance Testing Of High-Efficiency Ultraviolet Water Treatment Chamber
    Disinfection Performance Testing Of High-Efficiency Ultraviolet Water Treatment Chamber

    This is the second in a series of three white papers describing the design and performance of the NeoTech Aqua ReFlex™ treatment chamber. The first describes in detail the theoretical basis for the very high efficiency demonstrated by the chamber. The third paper describes how this chamber design leads to some highly desirable operational advantages beyond just energy ad cost reduction. By J. R. Cooper, Ph. D. and Gwynne Cavender, NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.

Treatment Of Cyanotoxins In Drinking Water With Activated Carbon

Recently, cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins have become a high profile drinking water quality concern in both the United States and abroad. The combination of weather conditions, agricultural phosphate runoff, and other factors has produced water conditions that have favored the formation of cyanobacteria in surface water supplies.

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CONTAMINANT REMOVAL PRODUCTS

TOC Reduction

TOC Reduction

NeoTech Aqua Solutions provides the most efficient and cost-effective UV systems for destroying Total Organic Carbons (TOC’s) in water.  Whether your destroying NDMA, 1,4-dioxane, TCE, MTBE, urea, endocrine disruptors or other organics, only NeoTech Aqua provides ultraviolet TOC reduction with a treatment chamber optimized for low pressure mercury lamps.  As a result, NeoTech Aqua’s UV systems achieve a three times greater TOC reduction per kilowatt compared to standard UV systems, reducing our clients’ costs and energy consumption. In addition to efficiently generating ample 185 nm UV for TOC reduction, NeoTech Aqua’s TOC reduction systems also generate significant levels of 254 nm UV which serve as a powerful disinfectant, providing you both TOC-free and organism-free product water.

NeoTech D322™

NeoTech D322™

The NeoTech D322™ is specially designed to disinfect water and is an essential component in advanced oxidation processes.

UV Systems For Corrosive Media

UV Systems For Corrosive Media

Xylem offers long disinfection experience and a broad portfolio of UV solutions specially for corrosive media like saltwater.

NeoTech D228™

NeoTech D228™

The NeoTech D228™ is specially designed to disinfect water and is an essential component in advanced oxidation processes.

Patriot™ Series

Patriot™ Series

NeoTech Aqua Solutions’ Patriot Series utilizes D438 chamber technology in a stacked and manifolded configuration to support larger flow volumes. By integrating NeoTech Aqua’s patented ReFleX chamber technology, Patriot systems provide the most efficient and versatile UV water treatment equipment available for large volume users. Further, when configured as an n+1 design, the NeoTech Aqua’s Patriot systems meet most redundancy requirements.

NeoTech D428™

NeoTech D428™

The NeoTech D428™ is specially designed to disinfect water and is an essential component in advanced oxidation processes.

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DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL PODCASTS

UV Disinfection With LEDs

UV Disinfection With LEDs

UV LEDs offer the chemical free disinfection of traditional UV while avoiding mercury lamps. In certain applications where customers are concerned about the potential hazards of mercury contamination in the water from a broken lamp, UV LEDs are interesting because they don’t contain any mercury content at all.

The Reward Of Risk: New Tech Pays Off

The Reward Of Risk: New Tech Pays Off

The engineering community can sometimes be weary of trying anything other than the technologies they are already accustomed to, says Rich Cavagnaro of Adedge, a purification technology company with a focus on nitrates and radionuclides.

Challenges For Water Utilities Spur Technology Upgrades

Challenges For Water Utilities Spur Technology Upgrades

Lee Odell, Water Treatment Global Technology Lead at CH2M HILL, discusses some of the current challenges that water utilities are facing and how CH2M HILL is well-poised to address them.

Understanding The Benefits Of Chlorination

Understanding The Benefits Of Chlorination

Fletcher Roche, Product Manager at Evoqua Water Technologies, explains why chlorine gas is a safe and cost-effective disinfection solution.

Biological Treatment Comes Of Age

Biological Treatment Comes Of Age

Biological treatment has been around quite a while at wastewater treatment plants, but it’s still undergoing evolution and innovation.

Chromium-6 Treatment Becomes Key Issue Following California Regulations

Chromium-6 Treatment Becomes Key Issue Following California Regulations

With water scarcity driving populations to new or previously abandoned water sources out West, Chromium-6 is becoming a significant treatment issue. 

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CONTAMINANT REMOVAL VIDEOS

Leopold® FilterWorx® Overview

Leopold® FilterWorx® Overview

FilterWorx® is a complete water filtration system engineered to improve efficiency and reliability. Ideally suited for applications such as potable drinking water treatment, tertiary wastewater treatment, nutrient removal in water or wastewater, pretreatment prior to low-pressure membrane systems, and RO membrane desalination pretreatment, FilterWorx performance filters feature a flat-bottom flume, fiberglass backwash water troughs, engineered media, three types of underdrains, and media retainers in two different sizes. In addition, FilterWorx control systems provide the longest filtration run cycles to reduce energy consumption and wastewater generation, thereby lowering operating costs.

Ozone Trending As Reuse Solution

Ozone Trending As Reuse Solution

In many water-scarce parts of the country, today’s wastewater is tomorrow’s drinking water. With reuse increasing rapidly, effective disinfection is more important than ever before. One solution that many wastewater and water utilities are turning towards is ozone.

WEDECO PRO<sub>3</sub>MIX Overview

WEDECO PRO3MIX Overview

The PRO3MIX bromate control system is an intelligent ozone-based advanced oxidation process (AOP) introduction and reaction system enabling ozone treatment in a compact and intelligent design to mitigate bromate formation even in cases of high level bromide in source water. This short animated overview walks the reader through the various disinfection points of the process.

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ABOUT

The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.

There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.

The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.

The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.

Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.

A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.

Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.

Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits.  Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.

Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).