DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL
CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
Sulfate concentrations in water have come under increasing scrutiny from regulatory authorities over the past two decades.
Genuine TrojanUV3000Plus™ Lamps Vs. Non-Genuine Lamps: A Side-By-Side Comparison (Case Study)
Perform Lamp Output And Aging Study On Trojan UV3000™ Lamps And Non-Genuine G64T5 Low Pressure UV Lamps
EPA’s Upcoming Regulation On Strontium — What You Need To Know
In October, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) made a preliminary determination to regulate strontium in the nation's drinking water.
Ozone Disinfection System Provides Second Stage Treatment For Water Treatment Plant
Tampa Bay Water’s state-of-the-art surface water treatment plant has provided high-quality drinking water to the Tampa Bay region.
Customized Calcium Hypochlorite System Steps Up To The Challenge
Rainbow Water District has 2,400 service connections serving approximately 6,400 customers in the unincorporated portion of Springfield, OR. The district, approximately 100 miles south of Portland, is served by excellent quality groundwater from 10 wells at four well fields near the McKenzie River.
Arsenic Removal Technologies: A Review
Arsenic is a common element in the earth’s crust, natural groundwater, and even the human body. It is an odorless and tasteless semi-metal (metalloid) that is naturally present in aquifers throughout the U.S. and the world.
Targeted Algal Management Plan To Address Taste And Odor Problem
Lake John Hay is located six miles northwest of Salem, Indiana and is used for drinking water and tournament and recreational fishing. With an average depth of 14-15 feet, it is ideal for algae and plant growth. The persistent, recurring algae blooms was causing taste and odor problems, which led to frequent complaints.
Dissolved Air Flotation System Reduces Costs, Improves Process
With the town of Johnstown, CO's, water treatment plant began operating its circular clarifier systems at maximum capacity to meet summer peak demand rates, consultants recommeded increasing plant capacity and using dissolved air flotation technology for their clarification process.
Clari-DAF® System Provides Effective TOC Removal For Cambridge WTP
To ensure treated water complied with the most stringent drinking water standards, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (State 2 DBPR), the City of Cambridge, MA, WTP decided to implement a robust multibarrier treatment solution.
Low Pressure, High Output 800‐Watt Amalgam System Performing Efficiently
The Trail Lakes Hatchery is owned by the State of Alaska and is managed under contract by the Cook Inlet Aquaculture Association (CIAA) on behalf of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. CIAA was established in 1976 to provide the Cook Inlet drainage with an organized and reliable salmon stock. The Trail Lakes facility is permitted to introduce sockeye and coho salmon at several sites throughout the Cook Inlet watershed.
Guaynabo WTP In Puerto Rico Saves Thousands With UV 254 Monitoring Package
Dealing with fluctuating water sources is not an easy task for plant operators. Seasonal variation, heavy rain fall or accidental contamination events change the raw water quality, requiring immediate attention. This is a familiar scenario for Facility Manager, Nancy Ma. Cáceres Acosta at the Los Filtros Water Treatment Plant in Puerto Rico. She has been producing highquality water for 256,000 local residents, receiving surface water from the Guaynabo and Bayamon River
Ion Exchange: A Viable Water Treatment Alternative To Membranes
Five decades ago, ion exchange using charged resins was one of two processes used in the water industry for water treatment.
On-Site Chlorine Generation Replaces Conventional Chlorine Gas Feed System In Scottsdale AZ
The city of Scottsdale, Arizona, a community of more than 200,000 residents was historically totally dependent on groundwater resources. By the mid 1980’s, the city began putting together a multi-faceted water resource program to provide the community with a long-term sustainable water supply.
BI Pure Water worked with University of British Columbia researchers and Lytton First Nation to develop a water disinfection system that addresses the needs of native communities, both cultural values as well as the basic necessity of clean drinking water.
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CONTAMINANT REMOVAL APPLICATION NOTES
CONTAMINANT REMOVAL VIDEOSMore Videos
The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.
There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.
The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.
The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.
A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.
Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.
Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits. Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.
Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).