PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS

Selecting An Envirnomentally Friendly Zero Liquid Discharge System

Mississippi Power Company had a wide range of environmental considerations when they set out to choose a builder for a Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) system, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. Aquatech was selected due to the company’s proven success in providing cost-effective, environmentally-focused water treatment solutions for the power industry. This case study provides details and technical specifications on the system selected.

  • Capacitance Level Switches Provide Reliable Water/Oil Interface Detection
    Capacitance Level Switches Provide Reliable Water/Oil Interface Detection

    There are a number of point level approaches to measuring the interface between water and oil for water dump control in the oil and gas industry. However, each has disadvantages — manual methods introduce human error, conductivity switches are rendered inaccurate by buildup, and float switches are susceptible to wear and tear. This white paper introduces capacitance level switches as an accurate and reliable alternative for water/oil interface detection.

  • Resolving High PH For Mining Operations
    Resolving High PH For Mining Operations

    For an open-pit taconite mining operation in Minnesota, high pH groundwater required round-the-clock pumping to comply with discharge permit limits. After management installed a control system to neutralize the pH, the treated water leaving the site now meets permit limits. Read this case study to learn more about the installed system and results.

  • Case Study: New MIOX iAO Technology For Groundwater Remediation At 75% Cost Reduction
    Case Study: New MIOX iAO Technology For Groundwater Remediation At 75% Cost Reduction

    Cl₂/UV AOP treatment processes are highly complex and dependent on a number of water chemistry and treatment process parameters. With over three years of direct experience, MIOX is in a unique position to apply its expertise towards customer-specific optimization of Cl₂/UV AOP treatment processes with the goal of reducing costs and improving safety. The use of MIOX’s On-Site generation systems, which produces aqueous chlorine from non-hazardous sodium chloride brine, offers a safer and superior chemical introduction into AOP treatment trains compared to concentrated hydrogen peroxide or bulk hypochlorite.

  • How To Manage The 4 Water-Based Fluids Associated With Hydraulic Fracturing
    How To Manage The 4 Water-Based Fluids Associated With Hydraulic Fracturing

    The primary fluid used in hydraulic fracturing is water and the completion process can require from 2.75 - 8.25 million gallons per well. This white paper discusses the different water management and instrumentation requirements for controlling and processing drilling mud, hydraulic fracturing fluid, flowback water and produced water.

More Produced Water Treatment Case Studies and White Papers

PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT PRODUCTS

Scienco® SciBRINE® Brinemaker with the new Levetrol® Plus SR (Smart Relay) Controllers

Scienco® SciBRINE® Brinemaker with the new Levetrol® Plus SR (Smart Relay) Controllers

For a complete, bulk salt storage solution, the Scienco® SciBRINE® is ideal for food processing, textile dye-setting and chemical industries. Scienco® SciBRINE® Brinemakers produces a clear, saturated brine that uses the advantages of down-flow brinemaking process in an automated system. Brinemakers are also for municipalities with large water softening systems. With multiple model sizes (tanks made locally)designed to meet both large and small-volume salt users, the Scienco® SciBRINE® System is equipped with new, state-of the-art Levetrol® Controllers and “Smart Relay” (SR) features to automate the salt and water usage, provide alerts for high/low water level alarms or solenoid valve failure.

RIO Zuni

RIO Zuni

1 or 2 lb/day MOS
Compact, easy to install, minimal maintenance

PetroSorb™ Activated Carbon

PetroSorb™ Activated Carbon

As refinery operations are forced to generate more product output from marginal raw material sources with aging equipment, the requirement to maintain an acceptable quality of processing chemicals becomes more difficult. Activated carbon used in a fixed bed can continuously treat process chemicals, either in full or in a partial treatment stream to restore their properties in line with virgin product. This greatly enhances the economy of the production process and permits the conversion of more heavily contaminated resources that were previously difficult to exploit.

RIO M Series Spec Sheet

The RIO M Series produces Mixed Oxidant Solution (MOS) chemistry for water disinfection and is systematically optimized for ease of use, reliability, and performance. The RIO is modular which means MOS disinfection chemistry output can be easily expanded 5X without increasing the footprint – just add more cells to the cabinet! Leading the industry in salt and energy conversion, the RIO can ensure the lowest life-cycle cost for your facility.

FEDI®-2 MEGA - Fractional Electrodeionization

FEDI®-2 MEGA - Fractional Electrodeionization

FEDI® stacks are designed to produce high purity water up to 18 MΩ.cm using a patented process with double sets of electrodes per stack.

SmartMOD®: Advanced Modularized Evaporation System For Oil Sands

Aquatech has been providing integrated water treatment solutions to the oil and gas industry for more than 30 years, ensuring our customers’ production and refining processes operate in an efficient and safe manner.

More Produced Water Treatment Products

PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT PODCASTS

Low-Cost Desalination — The Promise Of Forward Osmosis

Low-Cost Desalination — The Promise Of Forward Osmosis

Utilizing low-pressure, low-energy membrane technology, Oasys Water is setting out to change the way people think about desalination. Lisa Marchewka, VP of strategy and marketing for Oasys, explains how forward osmosis is more energy- and cost-efficient than competing technologies.

More Produced Water Treatment Podcasts

PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

“Produced water” is the oil and gas industry term for any water that comes out of the oil or gas reservoir as part of the production process. Oil reservoirs often contain large volumes of water, while gas reservoirs typically have smaller quantities. Sources of produced water include:

  •   Connate water present in the reservoir prior to production
  •   Condensed water from produced gas
  •    Injected water derived from injection wells

The physical and chemical properties of produced water are not consistent. Variation depends on factors such as reservoir geology, hydrocarbon composition, geographical location, and water injection history.
Produced water contains contaminants that require removal before proper disposal or reuse. Some of the impurities or substances likely to be found in produced water include: oil, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), waxes, greases, sand, scales, dissolved salts, CO2 (carbon dioxide) and H2S (hydrogen sulfide) gases, hydrocarbons, production chemicals, and various metals.

The treatment of produced water will differ according to the intended disposal method or reuse purpose. Filtration, cyclonic separation, flotation, and evaporation are among the commonly used treatment techniques.
Post-treatment, there are a number of options available for disposal or reuse, each of which will have different water treatment criteria associated with it:

  • Surface disposal into the sea or into evaporation ponds, subject to local environmental regulations
  • Injection into a disposal well, either a watered out part of the reservoir or to a disposal formation
  • Reinjection for pressure maintenance, replacing sea/aquifer/river water as the source of water injection
  • Reuse for irrigation or as industrial process water

Due to increasing environmental awareness and regulations, disposal to surface waters and evaporation ponds is becoming less prevalent.  Produced water is considered an industrial waste, subject to standards defined and issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

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PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT VIDEOS

Modular Supply Expertise

Modular Supply Expertise

Veolia is the world leader in supplying water treatment equipment utilizing module-based supply.  Modular supply is especially suitable for its HPD® Evaporation Equipment for projects in remote locations with constrained labor resources.

SAGD Produced Water Evaporator

SAGD Produced Water Evaporator

Learn more about the largest operating SAGD Produced Water Evaporation system currently operating in Alberta.  This system, based on Veolia's HPD® Evaporation and Crystallization technology, produces 854 m³/hr of Boiler Feed Water.

MIOX Improves Cooling Water Treatment

MIOX Improves Cooling Water Treatment

MIOX’s patented on-demand chemistries for cooling tower and cooling loop water disinfection improve safety, lower general corrosion rates, increase performance, and save money.  The unique qualities of MIOX chemistries lower corrosion rates by 80% in copper and 50% in steel, resulting in a reduction of downtime, maintenance and expense.

More Water Treatment Videos

SUPPLIERS

  • Evoqua Water Technologies
    Evoqua Water Technologies

    Evoqua Water Technologies, formerly Siemens Water Technologies, is a leader in water and wastewater treatment products, systems and services for industrial and municipal customers. We offer a wide range of proven product brands and advanced water and wastewater treatment technologies, mobile and emergency water supply solutions and service contract options.

  • Aquatech International Corporation
    Aquatech International Corporation For over 2 decades, Aquatech has provided industry worldwide with proven water and wastewater treatment systems|We strive to enable our customers to maximize efficiency by concentrating on their core businesses while we provide the leadership and expertise necessary in water treatment|Our mission is to utilize innovation and performance excellence to drive toward the ultimate goal--a lower overall life cycle cost of treatment
  • Eco-Tec Inc.
    Eco-Tec Inc.

    Eco-Tec Inc. engineers, designs, manufacturers and distributes from Pickering, near Toronto, Canada. Customer service and technical support provide treatability studies, installation service, on-site supervision and operator training...

  • Veolia Water Technologies
    Veolia Water Technologies

    Veolia Water Technologies offers comprehensive water and wastewater solutions for industrial and municipal customers. With unique technologies and process expertise, Veolia specializes in engineering, design, and project management, construction and execution.

  • Endress+Hauser, Inc.
    Endress+Hauser, Inc.

    Endress+Hauser has more than 50 years of experience in the areas of Municipal Wastewater, Industrial Wastewater, and Portable Water.