PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS

How To Fix High pH And Comply With The Clean Water Act

When the Clean Water Act was enacted, one of the intentions of this legislation was to reduce the untreated industrial waste water burden on publically owned waste water treatment plants (POTW) so that industrial wastewater would only load the treatment plant to the same extent as ordinary household sanitary waste. Industrial facilities that generated process wastewater had to begin pre-treatment of the water before it could be returned to the local POTW.

  • How To Manage The 4 Water-Based Fluids Associated With Hydraulic Fracturing
    How To Manage The 4 Water-Based Fluids Associated With Hydraulic Fracturing

    The primary fluid used in hydraulic fracturing is water and the completion process can require from 2.75 - 8.25 million gallons per well. This white paper discusses the different water management and instrumentation requirements for controlling and processing drilling mud, hydraulic fracturing fluid, flowback water and produced water.

  • Resolving High PH For Mining Operations
    Resolving High PH For Mining Operations

    For an open-pit taconite mining operation in Minnesota, high pH groundwater required round-the-clock pumping to comply with discharge permit limits. After management installed a control system to neutralize the pH, the treated water leaving the site now meets permit limits. Read this case study to learn more about the installed system and results.

  • Capacitance Level Switches Provide Reliable Water/Oil Interface Detection
    Capacitance Level Switches Provide Reliable Water/Oil Interface Detection

    There are a number of point level approaches to measuring the interface between water and oil for water dump control in the oil and gas industry. However, each has disadvantages — manual methods introduce human error, conductivity switches are rendered inaccurate by buildup, and float switches are susceptible to wear and tear. This white paper introduces capacitance level switches as an accurate and reliable alternative for water/oil interface detection.

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PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT PRODUCTS

RIO Zuni

RIO Zuni

1 or 2 lb/day MOS
Compact, easy to install, minimal maintenance

RIO Grande

RIO Grande

1,000+ lb/day MOS
1,550+ lb/day HYPO
Generate large volumes of disinfection chemistry at minimal cost!

Blackwater

Blackwater

400 → 800 lb/day MOS
Safe oxidizing chemistry generated at your site when you need it, with ZERO clean-up or spill procedures.

Scienco® SciCHLOR® Sodium Hypochlorite Generator

Scienco® SciCHLOR® Sodium Hypochlorite Generator

SCIENCO® SciCHLOR® Sodium Hypochlorite Generator is a fully integrated, simple, and compact designed system. The SciCHLOR® system with SciCELL® technology uses a recirculating method to produce 0.8% strength sodium hypochlorite solution in 10 lb (4.5 kg), 20 lb (9 kg), 40 lb (18 kg) and 60 lb (27 kg) NaClO/day sizes. Featuring a multi-pass scouring design, the SciCELL® unit, control panel, and recirculation pump allows the system to automatically run at the optimum salinity to increase power efficiency, extend cell life, and power-save shut down if no usage of sodium hypochlorite.

PetroSorb™ Activated Carbons for Oil and Gas Processing

PetroSorb™ Activated Carbons for Oil and Gas Processing

As refinery operations are forced to generate more product output from marginal raw material sources with aging equipment, the requirement to maintain an acceptable quality of processing chemicals becomes more difficult. Activated carbon used in a fixed bed can continuously treat process chemicals, either in full or in a partial treatment stream to restore their properties in line with virgin product. This greatly enhances the economy of the production process and permits the conversion of more heavily contaminated resources that were previously difficult to exploit.

RIO M Series Spec Sheet

The RIO M Series produces Mixed Oxidant Solution (MOS) chemistry for water disinfection and is systematically optimized for ease of use, reliability, and performance. The RIO is modular which means MOS disinfection chemistry output can be easily expanded 5X without increasing the footprint – just add more cells to the cabinet! Leading the industry in salt and energy conversion, the RIO can ensure the lowest life-cycle cost for your facility.

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PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT PODCASTS

Oil And Water Might Not Mix But They Certainly Like Each Other

Oil And Water Might Not Mix But They Certainly Like Each Other

Paul Schuler, Americas Executive for GE Power and Water, is seeing companies doing things with water that he’s never seen before.

Low-Cost Desalination — The Promise Of Forward Osmosis

Low-Cost Desalination — The Promise Of Forward Osmosis

Utilizing low-pressure, low-energy membrane technology, Oasys Water is setting out to change the way people think about desalination. Lisa Marchewka, VP of strategy and marketing for Oasys, explains how forward osmosis is more energy- and cost-efficient than competing technologies.

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PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

“Produced water” is the oil and gas industry term for any water that comes out of the oil or gas reservoir as part of the production process. Oil reservoirs often contain large volumes of water, while gas reservoirs typically have smaller quantities. Sources of produced water include:

  •   Connate water present in the reservoir prior to production
  •   Condensed water from produced gas
  •    Injected water derived from injection wells

The physical and chemical properties of produced water are not consistent. Variation depends on factors such as reservoir geology, hydrocarbon composition, geographical location, and water injection history.
Produced water contains contaminants that require removal before proper disposal or reuse. Some of the impurities or substances likely to be found in produced water include: oil, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), waxes, greases, sand, scales, dissolved salts, CO2 (carbon dioxide) and H2S (hydrogen sulfide) gases, hydrocarbons, production chemicals, and various metals.

The treatment of produced water will differ according to the intended disposal method or reuse purpose. Filtration, cyclonic separation, flotation, and evaporation are among the commonly used treatment techniques.
Post-treatment, there are a number of options available for disposal or reuse, each of which will have different water treatment criteria associated with it:

  • Surface disposal into the sea or into evaporation ponds, subject to local environmental regulations
  • Injection into a disposal well, either a watered out part of the reservoir or to a disposal formation
  • Reinjection for pressure maintenance, replacing sea/aquifer/river water as the source of water injection
  • Reuse for irrigation or as industrial process water

Due to increasing environmental awareness and regulations, disposal to surface waters and evaporation ponds is becoming less prevalent.  Produced water is considered an industrial waste, subject to standards defined and issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

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PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT VIDEOS

Drought Forum Webinar: The Growing Demand For Re-Used And Brackish Water

Drought Forum Webinar: The Growing Demand For Re-Used And Brackish Water

The Western Governors' Drought Forum webinar “Once Marginal, Now Crucial: The Growing Demand for Re-used, Produced, and Brackish Water” explores the technological and regulatory obstacles to utilizing re-used, produced, and brackish water.

IDE Showcases Evaporator For SAGD Water Treatment In Canada

IDE recently hosted exclusive guided tours of its horizontal falling film evaporator for SAGD water treatment at the fabrication shop in Calgary, Alberta. Over three days more than 120 industry professionals had the opportunity to experience IDE's SAGD Horizontal Evaporator first hand.

CeraMem® Technology Highlighted At CERAWeek

CeraMem® Technology Highlighted At CERAWeek

Veolia’s CeraMem® Ceramic Membrane Technology was selected as an “Energy Innovation Pioneer” at the 34th Annual CERAWeek energy Conference due to successful installations in the oil & gas industry.

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SUPPLIERS

  • Veolia Water Technologies
    Veolia Water Technologies

    Veolia Water Technologies offers comprehensive water and wastewater solutions for industrial and municipal customers. With unique technologies and process expertise, Veolia specializes in engineering, design, and project management, construction and execution.

  • Evoqua Water Technologies
    Evoqua Water Technologies

    Evoqua Water Technologies, formerly Siemens Water Technologies, is a leader in water and wastewater treatment products, systems and services for industrial and municipal customers. We offer a wide range of proven product brands and advanced water and wastewater treatment technologies, mobile and emergency water supply solutions and service contract options.

  • Endress+Hauser, Inc.
    Endress+Hauser, Inc.

    Endress+Hauser has more than 50 years of experience in the areas of Municipal Wastewater, Industrial Wastewater, and Portable Water.

  • Eco-Tec Inc.
    Eco-Tec Inc.

    Eco-Tec Inc. engineers, designs, manufacturers and distributes from Pickering, near Toronto, Canada. Customer service and technical support provide treatability studies, installation service, on-site supervision and operator training...

  • Aquatech International Corporation
    Aquatech International Corporation For over 2 decades, Aquatech has provided industry worldwide with proven water and wastewater treatment systems|We strive to enable our customers to maximize efficiency by concentrating on their core businesses while we provide the leadership and expertise necessary in water treatment|Our mission is to utilize innovation and performance excellence to drive toward the ultimate goal--a lower overall life cycle cost of treatment