PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
When the Clean Water Act was enacted, one of the intentions of this legislation was to reduce the untreated industrial waste water burden on publically owned waste water treatment plants (POTW) so that industrial wastewater would only load the treatment plant to the same extent as ordinary household sanitary waste. Industrial facilities that generated process wastewater had to begin pre-treatment of the water before it could be returned to the local POTW.
Resolving High PH For Mining Operations
For an open-pit taconite mining operation in Minnesota, high pH groundwater required round-the-clock pumping to comply with discharge permit limits. After management installed a control system to neutralize the pH, the treated water leaving the site now meets permit limits. Read this case study to learn more about the installed system and results.
How To Manage The 4 Water-Based Fluids Associated With Hydraulic Fracturing
The primary fluid used in hydraulic fracturing is water and the completion process can require from 2.75 - 8.25 million gallons per well. This white paper discusses the different water management and instrumentation requirements for controlling and processing drilling mud, hydraulic fracturing fluid, flowback water and produced water.
Capacitance Level Switches Provide Reliable Water/Oil Interface Detection
There are a number of point level approaches to measuring the interface between water and oil for water dump control in the oil and gas industry. However, each has disadvantages — manual methods introduce human error, conductivity switches are rendered inaccurate by buildup, and float switches are susceptible to wear and tear. This white paper introduces capacitance level switches as an accurate and reliable alternative for water/oil interface detection.
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PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
“Produced water” is the oil and gas industry term for any water that comes out of the oil or gas reservoir as part of the production process. Oil reservoirs often contain large volumes of water, while gas reservoirs typically have smaller quantities. Sources of produced water include:
- Connate water present in the reservoir prior to production
- Condensed water from produced gas
- Injected water derived from injection wells
The physical and chemical properties of produced water are not consistent. Variation depends on factors such as reservoir geology, hydrocarbon composition, geographical location, and water injection history.
Produced water contains contaminants that require removal before proper disposal or reuse. Some of the impurities or substances likely to be found in produced water include: oil, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), waxes, greases, sand, scales, dissolved salts, CO2 (carbon dioxide) and H2S (hydrogen sulfide) gases, hydrocarbons, production chemicals, and various metals.
The treatment of produced water will differ according to the intended disposal method or reuse purpose. Filtration, cyclonic separation, flotation, and evaporation are among the commonly used treatment techniques.
Post-treatment, there are a number of options available for disposal or reuse, each of which will have different water treatment criteria associated with it:
- Surface disposal into the sea or into evaporation ponds, subject to local environmental regulations
- Injection into a disposal well, either a watered out part of the reservoir or to a disposal formation
- Reinjection for pressure maintenance, replacing sea/aquifer/river water as the source of water injection
- Reuse for irrigation or as industrial process water
Due to increasing environmental awareness and regulations, disposal to surface waters and evaporation ponds is becoming less prevalent. Produced water is considered an industrial waste, subject to standards defined and issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
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Endress+Hauser has more than 50 years of experience in the areas of Municipal Wastewater, Industrial Wastewater, and Portable Water.
Aquatech International Corporation For over 2 decades, Aquatech has provided industry worldwide with proven water and wastewater treatment systems|We strive to enable our customers to maximize efficiency by concentrating on their core businesses while we provide the leadership and expertise necessary in water treatment|Our mission is to utilize innovation and performance excellence to drive toward the ultimate goal--a lower overall life cycle cost of treatment
Veolia Water Technologies
Veolia Water Technologies offers comprehensive water and wastewater solutions for industrial and municipal customers. With unique technologies and process expertise, Veolia specializes in engineering, design, and project management, construction and execution.
Eco-Tec Inc. engineers, designs, manufacturers and distributes from Pickering, near Toronto, Canada. Customer service and technical support provide treatability studies, installation service, on-site supervision and operator training...
Evoqua Water Technologies
Evoqua Water Technologies, formerly Siemens Water Technologies, is a leader in water and wastewater treatment products, systems and services for industrial and municipal customers. We offer a wide range of proven product brands and advanced water and wastewater treatment technologies, mobile and emergency water supply solutions and service contract options.