DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION
CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
All chemical processes involve the loss, gain, or redistribution of electrons on an atom or group of atoms. Electricity is the movement of electrons along a conductor. It is no wonder then that chemical changes can be made to occur by passing an electric current through a solution containing atoms or groups of atoms which will accept or give up electrons. Processes which pass an electrical current through a solution to effect chemical changes are called electrochemical processes. By PEPCON Systems
ORP Based Measurement Of Oxidizing Disinfectants In Aqueous Solutions
Oxidizing antimicrobials, such as chlorine, are common disinfectants used to treat water. Test strips, DPD kits, and colorimeters are currently the most popular methods for determining the relative disinfecting power of oxidizing antimicrobial agents in these applications. By Myron L Company
Case Study: Newport News Uses Emerson Ozone Instrumentation For Safe, Effective Disinfection
Maintaining the quality of the water supply is the top priority for municipal drinking water treatment plants across the country. Water plants use several treatment processes to ensure water quality and safety, and these treatment steps include disinfection. Traditionally, chlorine is used in both primary and secondary disinfection treatments and has been used since 1908. Some water plants are moving to ozone for primary disinfection. One water utility that is taking this direction is Newport News Waterworks.
Surface Water Treatment & LT2 Compliance - Surprise, Arizona (Case Study)
The White Tanks Regional Water Treatment Facility (White Tanks) is located in Surprise, Arizona, and treats surface water from the Colorado River that is delivered by a 336 mile (540 kilometer) man-made canal.
High-Power UV Lamps Lower Replacement Costs, Reduce Maintenance
The Tesla Water Treatment Facility is located in Tracy California approximately 60 miles west of San Francisco in the Central Valley of California. Since 1934, San Francisco has received water from the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir in Yosemite National Park via the 167 mile long Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct. Due to the pristine nature of the water source, the water is unfiltered and was only chlorinated at the 75 year old Tesla Portal facility.
UV Disinfection In The Developing World
Clean water is essential for life. Nearly one billion people around the world lack access to safe water and approximately 3.5 million deaths each year are linked to waterrelated diseases. By Real Tech
Meeting WHO Standards For Cryptosporidium With UV In Singapore
Johor River Waterworks (JRWW) is located in Kotta Tinggi, Malaysia approximately 60 km north of Singapore. Under a water agreement with the Malaysian government, the Singapore government signed a 50 year agreement with the Public Utilities Board (PUB) to build, upgrade and operate the plant on the Johor River until the year 2050. Plants A and B were built between 1986 and 1999 and Plant C was constructed in 2001. With a combined capacity of 946 million liters per day (250 US MGD), the treated water is piped to Singapore and provides about 40% of the water for a population of 5.3 million people.
UV Experience For Inactivating Cryptosporidium In Surface Water Plants
The disinfection of pathogenic microbes in drinking water has been successful over the last century largely due to the use of chlorination. However, research conducted in the 1970’s revealed that by-products formed during the chlorination process are potentially carcinogenic. Since then, drinking water regulators have struggled within the confines of technological and economic limitations to find a balance between the benefits of chlorination and its harmful side effects.
Engineering For Safe Chlorine Disinfection
For more than 75 years chlorine has been effectively used to disinfect drinking water, eliminating dangerous bacteria and toxic compounds. Water supply engineers and treatment facility operators are used to necessary risks and problems associated with chlorine disinfection in order to deliver safe water. By Harland R. Pond, Product Manager; Grundfos
Safe Drinking Water With UV Disinfection (Case Study)
The source water in Cudahy, a city just south of Milwaukee, is susceptible to contamination and significantly impacted by agricultural and urban runoff. After a Cryptosporidium outbreak in the early 1990s, improved water quality was vital. A UV solution proved to be the best fit for protection against the contaminant within a restrictive space.
Municipal Drinking Water Facility Installs UV System To Deactivate Cryptosporidium And Giardia
The City of Berea public water system, provides service to approximately 20,000 people, using surface water drawn from the East Branch of the Rocky River; however, supplies can also be drawn from nearby Coe Lake and Baldwin Creek as needed.
Ion Exchange: A Viable Water Treatment Alternative To Membranes
Five decades ago, ion exchange using charged resins was one of two processes used in the water industry for water treatment.
A Rosemount Chlorine Analyzer Proves Just The Job For Seawater Duty At Dow's Terneuzen Site
The Dow Benelux site in Terneuzen, the Netherlands, uses seawater for process cooling. Environmental regulations require careful control of the concentration of chlorine added to control microbial fouling. The existing chlorine measurement system had become outdated, so after stringent tests Dow decided to replace it with a Rosemount Analytical Model TCL analyzer from Emerson Process Management. By Emerson Process Management, Rosemount Analytical
In 2005, in response to changes to the Canadian Drinking Water Quality guidelines, the Greater Vancouver Water District Board approved a proposal to upgrade the Coquitlam WTP with UV disinfection technology to act as the primary means of disinfection.
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DISINFECTION APPLICATION NOTES
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DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION SUPPLIERS
Arch Chemicals, Inc.
Lonza Microbial Control produces the new generation Constant Chlor® Plus calcium hypochlorite briquette feed systems that provide increased capacity and accuracy that exceeds its first generation system, plus new capabilities and features that further enhance operation, maintenance and safety.
Calgon Carbon Corporation
Calgon Carbon Corporation (NYSE:CCC), and its European operation Chemviron Carbon, is a global manufacturer and supplier of granular activated carbon, innovative treatment systems, value added technologies and services for optimizing production processes and safely purifying the environment
JCS Industries Inc.
JCS Industries, Inc. was founded in 2002 as a product development company charged with developing an alternative to the current vacuum feed liquid doser technology for a worldwide manufacturer of water and waste treatment equipment. After one year of design and two years of beta testing, JCS developed the Model 4100 Automatic Vacuum Liquid Feeder.
Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors are used for degassing liquids. They are most commonly used for O2 removal from water and CO2 removal from water, but they are also capable of controlling a variety of other dissolved gasses as well, such as Nitrogen.
With a history of scientific innovation, MIOX Corporation began manufacturing on-site generators in 1994. Now with more than 1,700 installations in hundreds of U.S. communities and over 30 countries, MIOX is employed in many markets and applications including potable water, wastewater and reuse, commercial swimming pools, on board military and cruise ships, cooling towers, the beverage industry, oil and gas water treatment, and other commercial and industrial applications.
PEPCON Systems PEPCON Systems (PEPCON) designs, manufactures and services equipment that utilizes a proven electrochemical process to safely and economically treat water and control odor in a variety of applications. These systems are marketed under the names ChlorMaster® and OdorMaster® and are available worldwide.
Pinnacle Ozone is the manufacturer and world class integrator of rugged & compact, energy efficient industrial ozone systems. Our Pinnacle systems are used in a diverse array of industrial, commercial and municipal water application areas where treatment requires compact size, system mobility, high efficiency, wide operational pressure, and complex system integration solutions and services.
Severn Trent Services
Severn Trent Services is a leading supplier of water and wastewater treatment solutions. We provide our clients with some of the industry’s brightest minds, advanced technologies, and quality products to provide you with truly efficient, cost-effective solutions to your water and wastewater challenges
TrojanUV specializes in the design, manufacture and sale of pressurized and open-channel ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems for municipal wastewater, municipal drinking water and environmental contaminant treatment applications. We are proud to have the largest installed base of UV systems in the world and are committed to reducing water stress and maximizing this invaluable resource for current and future generations.
WEDECO -- A Xylem Brand
Using processes that are both future-oriented and ecologically harmless, WEDECO products are committed to improving the foundations on which we live, on a global scale. As a company committed to healthcare, we consider it our duty to create health provisions, especially in the area of water disinfection. The broad outline of our business is to realize the best possible solution for mankind and the environment, and the most economic solution for our clients.
UV Pure Technologies
UV Pure® Technologies develops and manufactures technically advanced UV water purification systems. Since 1998, over 12,000 UV Pure systems have been installed in residential, commercial, industrial, public and municipal applications treating wastewater, reuse water, rainwater, and drinking water. The company’s Crossfire Technology is dramatically advantaged compared to conventional ultraviolet systems. UV Pure Systems are self-cleaning, and smart - with multiple sensors and on-board diagnostics. They are engineered to be fail-safe and virtually maintenance-free. Lamps are mounted in air surrounded by elliptical reflectors providing more effective deactivation of pathogens, incorporating easy lamp changes and visual quartz inspection. Remote monitoring is available.
ABOUT DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION
Water disinfection is the process of removing unwanted chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water. It is also the elimination, deactivation or killing of pathogenic microorganisms.
Methods used include physical processes such as filtration, sedimentation, and distillation, biological processes such as slow sand filters or activated sludge, chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light.
Ozonators produce small quantities of ozone which is a strong oxidizing agent that kills pathogens over a short period of time.