WATER MEMBRANES WHITE PAPERS AND CASE STUDIES
Water reuse efforts in the West Coast are a priority and have the Ground Water Replenishing System (GWRS) of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) utilizing new technologies for water conservation.
Water Supply Needs At Odds With Regional Demands To Lower Power Use
The shoreline of the Red Sea is a dazzling destination for tourists and locals to experience the beach and enjoy marine activities. In Egypt, the shoreline sprawls from the Suez Canal in the north, down to the southern part of the country bordering Sudan.
Overcoming Difficult Conditions, Salty Groundwater And Changes In Feedwater Quality
Kibbutz Reim had to convert salty groundwater into a high quality irrigation resource in this desert-like region. High recovery was essential to this customer, both because of the limited amount of groundwater available and the challenge of brine disposal from their inland location.
High Recovery Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment For Industrial, Agricultural, And Municipal Applications
Industry accounts for nearly 60 percent of fresh water withdrawals in the developed world and agriculture consumes 70 percent of fresh water supplies globally, according to UNESCO.
Pulp And Paper Manufacturer Significantly Increases Production While Complying With Discharge Limitations
A U.S.-based pulp and paper manufacturer required high purity process and boiler feed water. It was using water from a local well and treating it with a 150 gpm conventional RO system operating at 75% recovery, but this was creating 50 gpm of wastewater – over 26 million gallons per year.
Closed Circuit Desalination Technology Provides Steel Manufacturer ROI In Less Than 60 Days
This leading rod and wire mill requires water for cooling steel and tools in its manufacturing process. Water used for cooling becomes contaminated with metals and lubricants and was therefore being disposed of as waste.
Eliminate CIP And Cut Wastewater Disposal In Half With CCD
A high water recovery rate is essential for this well-known soy protein manufacturer.
Reliable Production Of High Quality Permeate For Irrigation
Following one of the driest periods on record in California, farmers in the San Joaquin Valley faced restricted water allocations.
CCD Technology Succeeds With Well Water Purification
The Kittansett Golf Club in Marion, Massachusetts is rated one of America’s 100 Greatest Golf Courses by Golf Digest Magazine.
Produce Potable And Pharmaceutical Grade Water From Problematic Brackish Water
A pharmaceutical manufacturing plant located in Sedom, Israel faced challenging environmental conditions including low humidity, temperatures exceeding 105 degrees Fahrenheit and limited water supplies.
Reducing Effluent Waste While Using Less Energy With CCD
A pesticide manufacturing plant in Gujarat, India produces up to 6,000 metric tons per year of various pesticides for agricultural use.
MBR Helps Ohio WWTP Expand Its Facility Within Its Existing Footprint
The Carrollton Wastewater Treatment Plant located in eastern Ohio, was upgraded from conventional activated sludge technology.
Oldest Town In West Virginia Adopts Modern Wastewater Treatment System
Along the banks of the Potomac River and nested in the lower Shenandoah Valley, sits the quaint and historical Shepherdstown, the oldest town in West Virginia with nearly 1,200 residents and home to Shepherd University which serves about 4,000 students. The town attracts visitors year-round who come to take in the shops and bistros along German Street and visit the town’s many historical landmarks including the Mecklenburg Tobacco Warehouse. This 1920’s landmark housed the town’s waterworks that supplied water to Shepherdstown residents until the mid ‘70s.
Opened a few months per year, seasonal establishments typically experience important fluctuations in the number of visitors. Energy consumption and operating expenses must continually be analysed and optimized. The implementation of efficient energy management practices and the integration of innovative wastewater treatment solutions that can improve their cost-efficiency ratio have become major sources of savings for this whole industry.
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Water membranes are widely used in the water treatment processes. They have become a fundamental player in separation technology because of the fact that they require no additional chemicals and their relatively low energy requirements.
Water membranes have been applied during the extraction of produced water, treatment of waste/sewage water and processing of surface water all with huge success levels. Conventional water treatment techniques are over time incorporating in their processes the use on water membranes. Commercialization of membranes was first done in the 1970s and 1980s.
Membrane technology is chiefly based on the presence of pores on the membranes that make them semi-permeable. The simple principle on which water membranes work is such that the semi-permeability of water membranes ensures that only water is allowed to pass through a specific membrane while trapping unwanted particles and substances.
In both microfiltration and ultra filtration, membranes provide an effective barrier for arresting suspended solids in water.
To aid substances to penetrate across a semi-permeable membrane the following steps are undertaken: Electric potential introduction, high pressure application and ensuring that the concentration gradient on both sides of the membrane is maintained. The surface area of the membrane also determines the efficiency of the membrane in use.
The only drawback on water membranes is that they cannot remove substances that are actually dissolved in the water such as phosphorus, nitrates and heavy metal ions. The following are categories of membranes: Microfiltration (MF), Ultra filtration (UF), Reverse osmosis (RO), and Nanofiltration (NF) membranes
Ultra filtration membranes employ polymer technology with chemically created microscopic pores that trap dissolved substances therefore eliminating the possible use of any coagulants.