Water loss is a constant concern for drinking water utilities. After all of the hard (and expensive) work it takes to get a purified product out of the plant, losing it to leaks and aging infrastructure before it reaches ratepayers can be problematic.
Vision. Invention. Determination. It’s the stuff from which America was built. And, it’s alive and well in the rolling hills of Wisconsin where Wisconsin Public Service (WPS) defied conventional wisdom seven years ago by installing two separate AMR systems cost-effectively—forever changing the way U.S. utilities evaluate the business case for automatic meter reading (AMR) system installations.
Eden Isle is a residential subdivision on a peninsula located on the beautiful Greers Ferry Lake. Many homes located in this area are occupied exclusively in the summer.
Every morning when you pour a cup of coffee or tear open a package of frozen waffles, the science of Dow Chemical is there to help make your breakfast convenient and fresh. Dow makes high-performance materials that go into food packaging, personal care products, medications, and clothing — to name a few.
Special precast box culverts were used for one of the most significant segments of the $25.8 million emergency water restoration project, designated by the NRCS, known as the Cache Water Restoration Project (CWRP). The CWRP project involved the reconstruction and improvement of approximately six miles of mostly open, unlined channels that make up the Logan and Northern, as well as the Hyde Park and Smithfield canals. The project incorporated new precast pipeline, box culverts, a section of pressurized pipe, metering systems, turn-outs, head gates, and improved maintenance access.
AES Puerto Rico Cogeneration Plant (AESPR) is a cogeneration power plant that produces 454 MW of net electricity in its fluidized bed boiler plant in Guayama, which is sold to the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA).
The facility’s Management Team set a goal to reduce their maintenance and operating expenses by greater than 25%. The Management Team researched filtration options available and determined that the Harmsco® Hurricane® Filtration System would meet or exceed their requirements.
The Rueter-Hess Water Purification Facility, located in Parker, CO, southeast of Denver, serves a community of approximately 50,000 residents. Faced with rapidly declining groundwater sources, the 10-MGD facility (expandable to 40-MGD) was opened in 2015 to process a renewable water supply for the Parker Water and Sanitation District (PWSD).
Trichloroethylene (TCE) and Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are two of the most common solvents that contaminate groundwater supplies in the United States. Both solvents see frequent use in the extraction of fat, in the textile industry, in the production of various pharmaceutical and chemical products. TCE is also used as a degreaser from fabricated metal parts, and PCE serves as a component of aerosol dry-cleaning solvents.
This presentation will discuss the operation of a 4 MGD pressurized two-stage Ultrafiltration (UF) plant over a 14 month period at the Oliver-Mercer-North Dunn (OMND) Drinking Water Treatment Facility, North Dakota.
Facility administrators will find the advanced ST100 Series Thermal Mass Air/Gas Flow Meter from Fluid Components International (FCI) helps them improve the accuracy of specialty gas point of use and sub-metering operations to achieve accurate billing in their labs for better cost tracking and control.
Hexanal is one of many well-documented aromatic components that contribute to flavor and aroma in common consumer food products containing omega-6 fatty acids. Hexanal content is also used to measure the oxidative status of foods rich in omega-6 fatty acids.
Many factors affect performance of a pH electrode. When performance degrades, it is always a challenge for the analyst to identify the cause. Common troubleshooting procedures, which include evaluation of slope, electrode drift, time response, and accuracy, take considerable time. By Thermo Fisher Scientific
The QuEChERS (Quick-Easy-Cheap-Effective-Rugged-Safe) sample extraction method was developed for the determination of pesticide residues in agricultural commodities.
Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis is an important indicator of water quality throughout the drinking water treatment process. Raw source water is progressively treated in chemical coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration steps to remove particulate matter and natural organic matter (NOM).
Process design in water treatment is historically confined to proprietary or user-defined spreadsheets on a unit operation basis, with users manually adding results from each unit process upstream into the next operation.
In the upcoming U.S. presidential election, China has emerged again and again as both threat and ally. With all the talk about trade, economic balance, and military concerns surrounding China, this is a timely opportunity to dive into a little-discussed aspect of Chinese global power plays: water.
In our last article we introduced the strategic and direct financial benefits associated with the Smart Grid for Water. In this edition, we begin the process of developing the business case for a Smart Grid for Water installation and how to make it compelling.
A bill under consideration in California would establish registry for energy use by the state’s water sector. Collecting that information could be a major step in stemming greenhouse gas emission and fighting drought.
Of all the industries my colleagues and I work in, some of the steepest challenges we see are in the water sector. As Water Online readers well know, scarcity now looms larger than ever in the U.S., with water organizations constantly confronting issues ranging from dwindling supplies to aging infrastructure, chemical contamination, and limited financial resources.
We live in a society that allows us to get information through our phones, TVs, and computers from across the world in a matter of seconds. Although we’ve come a long way in the information age, some of our country’s most important public health information is still collected and shared using antiquated methods like manual data entry and even paper reporting.
While biological treatment offers drinking plants a solution to some critical contaminants with reduced residual production, many have yet to embrace the alternative.
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.