Harnessing Aclara Advanced Analytics for Water Balancing, Meter Trending and Meter Right-Sizing Water utility managers today face a conundrum.
DRINKING WATER CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
Understanding ISE Measurements In Wastewater Process Monitoring
Analytic measuring technique provides a huge number of procedures to determine the concentrations of substances in an unknown sample, e.g. photometry, titration or mass spectrometry.
Thermal Mass Flow Meters Help Reduce Energy Costs And Enhance Emissions Monitoring Systems
Accurate, repeatable measurement of air and process gases is a key factor in improving accountability, productivity, and energy management processes. By Rich Cada, VP Sales & Marketing, Fox Thermal Instruments, Inc.
Why Pilot Test Prior To Purchasing A Water Treatment System?
There are a number of advanced water treatment tools available today that were not available 10 years ago, which broaden the approach to finding the most effective and least expensive treatment alternatives. Pilot testing of various technologies is the most beneficial method to determine the efficiency of treatments.
Ohio Water Plant Finds Effective Alternative To Chlorine Gas
For many years, Huber Heights, OH, searched for an effective and affordable way to eliminate gaseous chlorine (Cl2) use at its 4.46 MGD Needmore Road Water Treatment Plant. An innovative dry calcium hypochlorite makeup and delivery system now provides a safer disinfection method for operators and the community.
Pre-Filtering Multi Media Systems With Automatic, Self-Cleaning Filters Riviera Water District provides potable water for a small community at Clear Lake in Northern California. This lake historically produces significant summer algae blooms and, as a natural lake, has creek sediment runoffs in the winter
Finding Extra Time – And Money, And Water – With Neptune’s R450™ System
The county seat of Shelby County, Sidney, Ohio straddles the Miami River Valley 40 miles north of Dayton and 85 miles west of Columbus. Named after Sir Philip Sidney, poet and member of British Parliament, the City is home to a population of a little over 21,000.
White Paper (Updated): Self-Cleaning Pre-Filtration For R.O. Membrane Systems Recent advancements in the manufacturing technology of woven stainless steel screens have created new applications for mechanical filtration systems. One such application is the pretreatment of water supplied to Reverse Osmosis and other demineralization systems
Gore Hill Water Treatment Plant’s Backwash Recycle System Conserves More Than 1.5 Million Gallons Of Water Annually
The emphasis on sustainability in recent years has placed an increased demand on environmentally friendly solutions that adhere to strict regulatory standards. The H2ZeroTM backwash/recycle system from AdEdge Water Technologies conserves water by storing and treating contaminated backwash water from filtration and treatment systems.
Mueller Systems: Chillicothe Municipal Utilities Improves Customer Service, Operational Efficiencies With The Mi.Net™ System
CMU was in the process of replacing more than 4,000 outdated water and electric meters when it determined that the project also presented an ideal opportunity to implement a systemwide advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) network.
Dissolved Air Flotation Pretreatment Washes Away Waco’s Foul T&O Problem
During the hot and dusty summers just a few years ago, many thirsty residents of Waco, TX, were reluctant to slake their thirst with the city’s water.
DRINKING WATER APPLICATION NOTES
Application Note: Employing Best Water Quality Monitoring Practices To Reduce Runoff During Construction Under proposed EPA stormwater runoff guidelines, construction site operators will be required to actively monitor or sample stormwater discharges daily. The enhanced effluent rules take effect in August 2011 for construction sites that disturb 20 or more acres and February 2014 for sites that disturb 10 or more acres, and they may stipulate a strict numerical limit of less than 280 NTU for average turbidity (sediment in water) on any day. By YSI
Application Note: YSI Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring And The IPSWATCH-EMPACT Program The Ipswich and Parker Rivers watersheds lie only a short distance north of Boston, MA. The first settlements in these watersheds began in the early 1600s. Since that time, residents have relied heavily on the natural resources of the Parker and Ipswich Rivers, their coastal estuaries and Plum Island Sound, which is known as the Great Marsh. This ecosystem has been designated and protected by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC).
Hach FilterTrak 660™ Sc Laser Nephelometer Even More Practical For Ultra-Low Turbidity Monitoring
Now compatible with the Hach sc100 Controller, the FilterTrak 660 sc Nephelometer connects as a ‘plug and play’ sensor with the universal, dualchannel controller that features an inherent power supply.
Application Note: Continuous Monitoring Of Drinking Water Provides Assurance Of Safety A water utility in Ohio wanted to learn more about the variability of water quality parameters such as pH, ORP, turbidity, and chlorine. Previously, most of these parameters had been measured by spot sampling protocols with only a few measurements during a daily period. In order to more accurately assess the water variability, the utility used a YSI 6920DW Drinking Water Multiprobe
Desalination Plants: YSI Instruments Monitor Flow & Water Quality At Multiple Stages Desalination is the process of removing salt from sea water or brackish river or groundwater to make potable water. By YSI
Miami Conservancy District Uses Nitrate Screening As Conjunctive Management Tool Tasked with monitoring a watershed covering nearly 4,000 square miles, almost 2,300 miles of rivers and streams, and a huge aquifer that provides drinking water for more than 1.2 million people, water quality monitoring specialists at the Miami Conservancy District (MCD) in Dayton, Ohio, have their hands full. By YSI
Application Note: Ozone Measurement In Potable Water Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent that can be used to destroy the organic compounds that affect the taste and odor of potable water. Environmental concerns have led to increased use of ozone because, unlike chlorine, it does not form hazardous by-products. By Emerson Process Management, Rosemount Analytical
Disinfection By-Products (DBP) Precursor Monitoring
Chlorine has long been used as a primary disinfection method for many water and wastewater treatment applications. However, there is growing concern about the harmful DBP’s produced by the use of chlorine.
Ion Exchange Resins And Activated Carbons For Better-Tasting Water
For many, access to good-tasting tap water is limited, and buying bottled water can be expensive. Simple pour-through jug filters offer a low-cost and effective alternative. Activated carbons, in conjunction with ion exchange products, produce drinking water that is absent of all industrial pesticides and contaminants.
Ozone Disinfection: Ozone Measurement In Potable Water Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent that can be used to destroy the organic compounds that affect the taste and odor of potable water. Environmental concerns have led to increased use of ozone because, unlike chlorine, it does not form hazardous by-products. By Emerson Process Management, Rosemount Analytical
DRINKING WATER PRODUCTSMore Products
LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER
Understanding Salt Passage Vs. Salt Rejection In Reverse Osmosis Systems
Knowing the dynamics of membrane separation and distinguishing salt rejection and salt passage and how they’re calculated is necessary to understand the unique operational behaviors of reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), microfiltration (MF), and ultrafiltration (UF) systems.
Evaporation Retardation — Helping Surface Supplies Stay Put
Are chemical evaporative retardants a good method to prevent losses from reservoirs? By Charlie F. Anderson
What Drought? Deep Drilling For Groundwater Yields Rewards
The Utah Water District took a unique approach to discover new water for a rising population, with better-than-expected results.
A Beginner’s Guide To On-Site Sodium Hypochlorite Generation
Why buy, transport, and store chlorine when you can make your own? Here are nine questions to consider before adopting the practice.
The Surprising Money-Saving Solution For Utilities
At first glance, promoting conservation would seem like a poor financial decision for utilities to make. Less water use equals less money right? Not always.
New Standard Applies To Every Water Manager, Everywhere
Innovation can take many forms. In the water and wastewater industry, new and emerging technologies get most of the credit for being innovative and potentially transformative. However, new modes of thinking can have equal and sometimes greater impact.
DRINKING WATER NEWS
DRINKING WATER VIDEOSMore Drinking Water Videos
ABOUT DRINKING WATER
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
- Source water for a community’s drinking water supply
- Drinking water treatment of source water
- Distribution of treated drinking water to consumers
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.