Faced with aging meters of all kinds from multiple manufacturers, the Etowah Water & Sewer Authority, about an hour north of Atlanta, looked to implement a complete replacement program, one that would not simply replace all existing meters but would also favorably position the Authority for years to come. Specifically, they looked for an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) solution from one vendor that offered improved accuracy, greater longevity and forward-looking capabilities that would allow them to grow and develop as the future warranted.
DRINKING WATER CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
Next Generation FPI Mag Flow Meter Helps Provide Clean Water For Seattle
The Cedar Water Treatment Facility (CWTF) serves the residents of the City of Seattle. This state-of-the-art plant was designed and built, and is now operated by CH2M Hill. Working together, CH2M Hill and McCrometer improved flow measurement at the facility with the FPI Mag® Flow Meter.
4 Tips For Building Meter-Related Revenue The water meter industry operates on revenue and the modern utility is both a business and a public service. This article deals with the business and revenue side of the water industry. I don’t question the ability of the modern water utility to produce safe, high-quality water. However, I am concerned about the service side, since fairness to the end users of our product and fairness to the utilities who produce this very high-quality product is important and closely related to the revenue issues. It is our job to collect the revenue to which we are entitled by the application of fair business practices and the use of accurate and cost-saving measurement devices. I will talk about building revenue by avoiding revenue loss. By Floyd S. Salser, Jr., CEO, MARS Company
Water Reuse Strategies: Steel Industry Case Studies Successful reuse of water back into industrial water applications requires a comprehensive understanding of process design, water chemistry, membrane systems, chemical treatment, instrumentation and control. By David Christophersen, Technical Support Manager, Crown Solutions
Richland Springs Special Utility District, Texas Case Study
The Richland Special Utility District found that naturally-occurring radionuclides in their raw water source exceeded Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL’s) for Gross Alpha Emitters and Combined Radium. The district selected Water Remediation Technology's Z-88 Radium Removal Process as a cost-effective solution to reduce the gross alpha and radium content. In this case study, learn how the water quality now successfully meets regulatory requirements.
Case Study: Metering Accuracy is Critical To The Success Of Toronto’s Innovative Deep Lake Water Cooling The city of Toronto has capitalized on a valuable asset lying 272 feet below the surface of Lake Ontario – icy cold water that remains at a constant 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit all year round. Since August 2004, this previously-untapped resource has been supplying economical and environmentally-friendly air conditioning to large buildings in the city’s downtown
Reactivated Carbon Reduces Municipality’s Water Treatment Costs By 23%
With the cost of virgin granular activated carbon (GAC) on the rise, Guilderland Water District sought an alternative source of filtration media. In this case study, you’ll learn why Guilderland converted its plant to reactivated carbon, and as a result, realized 23% cost savings while maintaining water quality requirements set forth by the EPA.
Finding The Right Pretreatment Mix For RO/Ion Exchange Systems
Smart defense benefits the entire team. Having an ffective, durable water pretreatment system in advance of reverse osmosis (RO) or ion exchange systems is the first, most critical line of defense ensuring smooth, more trouble-free performance downstream. Contributed By Eco-Tec
Water Distribution System Challenges And Solutions
Limited new natural water sources, especially in the southwest region of the USA, and rapidly increasing population has led to the need for innovative methods to manage a water supply system.
Safe Drinking Water With UV Disinfection (Case Study)
The source water in Cudahy, a city just south of Milwaukee, is susceptible to contamination and significantly impacted by agricultural and urban runoff. After a Cryptosporidium outbreak in the early 1990s, improved water quality was vital. A UV solution proved to be the best fit for protection against the contaminant within a restrictive space.
Clari-DAF® System Provides Effective TOC Removal For Cambridge WTP
To ensure treated water complied with the most stringent drinking water standards, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (State 2 DBPR), the City of Cambridge, MA, WTP decided to implement a robust multibarrier treatment solution.
DRINKING WATER APPLICATION NOTES
A New Way Of Designing With Reverse Osmosis Membranes
Process design in water treatment is historically confined to proprietary or user-defined spreadsheets on a unit operation basis, with users manually adding results from each unit process upstream into the next operation.
Hydrogen Sulfide Removal From Water Using AquaSorb® CX-MCA
The “rotten egg” odor in some water supplies is caused by sulfide in water. Sulfide can be treated using oxidation techniques, the goal being to convert the sulfide to high oxidation state species such as sulfate to eliminate the taste and odor concerns. Traditional oxidation techniques such as ozone and chlorine can be used, but can be expensive due to the equipment required to add and monitor the oxidant, and can lead to by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs), which are regulated in drinking water supplies.
Organics Monitoring (TOC)
Total organic carbon (TOC) testing is the traditional method for determining organic matter in water. However there is a far more practical, affordable and often more useful way to measure organic matter. UV absorbance testing (UVA) is rapidly becoming the preferred method of measuring organics even when the levels of organics being measured are very small.
Hach FilterTrak 660™ Sc Laser Nephelometer Even More Practical For Ultra-Low Turbidity Monitoring
Now compatible with the Hach sc100 Controller, the FilterTrak 660 sc Nephelometer connects as a ‘plug and play’ sensor with the universal, dualchannel controller that features an inherent power supply.
Disinfection By-Products (DBP) Precursor Monitoring
Chlorine has long been used as a primary disinfection method for many water and wastewater treatment applications. However, there is growing concern about the harmful DBP’s produced by the use of chlorine.
Determination Of Pesticide Residues In Honey, By An Automated QuEChERS Solution
The QuEChERS (Quick-Easy-Cheap-Effective-Rugged-Safe) sample extraction method was developed for the determination of pesticide residues in agricultural commodities.
Application Note: Water Flows From The Golden Hills Of California Each morning John Johnson drives the few miles from his smalltown home in northern California to the Center at Pardee Reservoir. Nestled among the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, the reservoir is a long 100 miles away from San Francisco Bay. By YSI
Ion Exchange Resins And Activated Carbons For Better-Tasting Water For many, access to good-tasting tap water is limited, and buying bottled water can be expensive. Simple pour-through jug filters offer a low-cost and effective alternative. Activated carbons, in conjunction with ion exchange products, produce drinking water that is absent of all industrial pesticides and contaminants.
The Basics: Keeping Our Water Clean Requires Monitoring
Keeping the water in our lakes, rivers, and streams clean requires monitoring of water quality at many points as it gradually makes its way from its source to our oceans. Over the years ever increasing environmental concerns and regulations have heightened the need for increased diligence and tighter restrictions on wastewater quality.
Leak Detection Using Conductivity
Virtually all industries from food and beverage to chemical processing use heat exchangers, condensers,or jacketed vessels. Leakage of the process into the cooling water represents a loss of product and can be a source of fouling or corrosion in the cooling water system.
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LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER
7 Ways Smart Meters Save Water
In an era of drought and conservation, smart meters can be utilities’ best allies in the fight to preserve water supplies.
Carrying Out The EPA’s Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
For nearly a decade, public utilities that draw from surface waters have been contending with a developing regulation that is emblematic of the U.S. EPA and the systems under its charge.
Perspectives On 'Water for Development': Financing Africa’s Infrastructure
Critical to the actual delivery of water and sanitation services for the Continent of Africa is the financing and assistance made available by the African Development Bank. A regional multilateral development bank that was started in 1963, the Bank’s mission has remained simple: “To promote sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty in Africa.”
3 Solutions To Water-Intensive Fracking
Are you for or against it? It seems everyone has picked a side in the debate over hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”), but most conflict would likely fall away if fracking was performed in a proven safe and sustainable manner, verified by a reliable source.
Women And Water
In my last column, I referred to “men of a certain age,” zeroing in on the readers most likely to be fascinated in the ’70s and ’80s with both old monster movies and young Brooke Shields. But in no way do I believe water is a male problem (or a female one, at that). Water is an issue that unites us all.
Where Utilities And AMI Can Live In Perfect Harmony
While advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) may seem like the wave of the future, there are some things about the revolution that can be intimidating. Many utilities might like more metering information and digital management, but have serious questions about how such a system will fit into current processes and affect the bottom line.
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ABOUT DRINKING WATER
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
- Source water for a community’s drinking water supply
- Drinking water treatment of source water
- Distribution of treated drinking water to consumers
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.