Those in the water industry know water is essential for life and brings economic value, but the economic role of water is often not as well understood by the general public. This paper reviews the history and development of our transportation, electrical, and energy infrastructure and then presents a plan for our nation’s water to be augmented from where we have it abundantly to where we badly need it.
DRINKING WATER CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
Using Pump Variable Speed Drive Solutions In Membrane Filtration
Variable frequency drives (VFDs) are nothing new to membrane filtration units. The most typical use of an external VFD on pressure pumps for reverse osmosis (RO) or ultra-filtration (UF) systems is to account for variability in flow.
Meeting The Exacting Requirements Of Potable Water Chlorination
Constant Chlor® Plus calcium hypochlorite briquettes and new spray technology are prompting many utilities to re-evaluate their chlorination strategies. By Dave Stark
Theoretical Operation Of High-Efficiency Ultraviolet Water Treatment Chamber
The NeoTech Aqua ReFleX™ water purification chambers are the most efficient and compact units available today. They require an order of magnitude less energy and less than 25% of the system volume to achieve the same or better purification result as competing chambers. This is the first in a series of three white papers explaining the benefits of these systems. By J. R. Cooper, Ph.D, NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.
Online TOC Analysis In The Drinking Water Treatment Process
In 1974 the Congress of the United States passed Public Law 93-523; the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to protect public health by regulating the nation’s drinking water supply and protecting sources of drinking water. The SDWA first went into effect on June 24, 1977 and has been amended multiple times.
White Paper: High-Efficiency Reverse Osmosis Treats Gray Water For Power Generation
Recycling of gray wastewater as boiler make- up water was the challenge where silica value was typically 85 ppm in this secondary treated wastewater. This paper describes a new design called the High-Efficiency Reverse Osmosis selected for that task, discusses the project technical considerations and highlights the actual performance of the system.
Two-Way Fixed Network Helps Texas Community Become ‘City Of The Future’
In January 2014, the city of Meadows Place, Texas, became the first city in Fort Bend County to fully convert to an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) fixed-network system. At the same time, the city also implemented a complete meter change-out for its 1,600 customers. Both projects represent large initiatives for the self-proclaimed “little city” with a population of 4,600 citizens.
What Four Savvy Operators Know About Mag Meters Saves Time, Money, And Headaches
If your flow meter is costing you time and money ... and that all adds up to real operational headaches, then you might want to hear what four McCrometer customers who installed the FPI Mag Flow Meter have to say about this problem-solving flow instrument.
Filtration And Proper Contaminant Removal
Proper removal of organic and inorganic contaminants from water used in consumption or manufacturing is the crucial component of the intended outcome. By Robert LeConche, President, Shelco Filters
Activated Carbon Applications for Drinking Water Production
Water is an essential element of life: it accounts for 70% to 80% of the weight of a human being. The quality of water is an important parameter that affects all aspects of the well-being of ecosystems and mankind, from human health, to food production, economic activities and biodiversity.
Portable Parallel Analysis: Streamlining Distribution System Water Testing
A Water Quality Specialist used the Hach SL1000 Parallel Portable Analyzer (PPA) to test 6 parameters simultaneously – all within about 8 minutes. Previously, the procedure took 20 minutes just for one parameter.
DRINKING WATER APPLICATION NOTES
Comparison of UV vs. Sodium Hypochlorite (Fact Sheet)
Hypochlorite has some significant environmental concerns associated with DBPs and residual toxicity.
Hydrogen Sulfide Removal From Water Using AquaSorb® CX-MCA
The “rotten egg” odor in some water supplies is caused by sulfide in water. Sulfide can be treated using oxidation techniques, the goal being to convert the sulfide to high oxidation state species such as sulfate to eliminate the taste and odor concerns. Traditional oxidation techniques such as ozone and chlorine can be used, but can be expensive due to the equipment required to add and monitor the oxidant, and can lead to by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs), which are regulated in drinking water supplies.
Application Note: Water Flows From The Golden Hills Of California Each morning John Johnson drives the few miles from his smalltown home in northern California to the Center at Pardee Reservoir. Nestled among the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, the reservoir is a long 100 miles away from San Francisco Bay. By YSI
Application Note: YSI 600 Optical Monitoring System Used To Protect Lake Oconee, Georgia Water Quality Northern Georgia is experiencing unprecedented development; consequently, water quality in many of its watersheds is in jeopardy of severe degradation. The State of Georgia, Environmental Protection Division (EPD) has implemented an NPDES monitoring and enforcement program designed to prevent construction activities from impacting water quality
Determination Of Hexanal In Foods Utilizing Dynamic Headspace
Hexanal is one of many well-documented aromatic components that contribute to flavor and aroma in common consumer food products containing omega-6 fatty acids. Hexanal content is also used to measure the oxidative status of foods rich in omega-6 fatty acids.
Network Monitors Water Quality In Shale Gas Drilling Region High-pressure injection of water, sand, and chemicals that fracture shale deposits deep underground to free trapped natural gas is employed by drillers tapping the Marcellus shale beds, a geologic deposit that stretches from central New York to Virginia and contains gas believed to be worth hundreds of billions of dollars. By YSI
Application Note: Busseron Creek Watershed Partnership Addresses Concerns In A Rural Watershed As with other watershed organizations, the Busseron Creek Watershed Partnership (BCWP) exists because of surface water quality degradation. In this case, those waters drain 163,231 acres of a watershed that crosses the boundaries of Vigo, Clay, Green, and Sullivan counties in West- Central Indiana. By YSI
Leak Detection Using Conductivity
Virtually all industries from food and beverage to chemical processing use heat exchangers, condensers,or jacketed vessels. Leakage of the process into the cooling water represents a loss of product and can be a source of fouling or corrosion in the cooling water system.
Analyzing Total Organic Carbon In Sea Water
The analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in seawater can be both challenging and expensive. The concentration of organic carbon in seawater is of considerable interest. The effect this matrix can have on TOC analyzers can lead to rapid consumable turnover, costly maintenance and repairs.
Determination Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Seafood
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic compounds found naturally in the environment. PAHs are monitored by the US Environmental Protection Agency due to their carcinogenic characteristics.
DRINKING WATER PRODUCTSMore Products
LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER
UAE’s Rain Enhancement Program Addresses Key Technical Challenges
Some regional governments are looking at rain enhancement as an under-explored option for arid and semi-arid countries to strengthen their water sustainability.
Water Utilities Become Smarter In Tackling Scarcity
Utilities around the world face ever-increasing demand for water as a result of population growth, ongoing urbanization, and rapidly growing economic activity in areas where water supply is already limited.
The High Stakes Of Smart Water: $1 Trillion And 1.8 Billion People
Making the business case for smart water networks and advanced metering infrastructure
5 Burning Questions On Radium And Uranium Removal
High levels of radionuclides in drinking water aren’t very common, but they are very dangerous. If you’ve long dealt with radionuclides, you’re familiar with the treatment requirements — but are you treating as cost effectively as possible?
10 Tips For Accurate Disinfection
Disinfection can rightly be called the “ultimate” stage of drinking water treatment — typically occurring at the end of the process, and acting as a final step before water is sent out of the plant, through the pipes, and into the world. It may come last, but it’s certainly not least.
In The Face of Extreme Drought, Australia (And Possibly Texas) Undoes Best Strategy For Water Conservation — Clean Energy
Cowboys, frontier grit, accented English, and wild, wide open spaces are just a few of the similarities shared by Texas and Australia. Both places also have an energy-water problem. But, the good news for Texas is that it’s not too late for us to learn from Australia’s mistakes — and a few successes, too.
DRINKING WATER NEWS
DRINKING WATER VIDEOSMore Drinking Water Videos
ABOUT DRINKING WATER
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
- Source water for a community’s drinking water supply
- Drinking water treatment of source water
- Distribution of treated drinking water to consumers
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.