Every water system typically consists of piping networks that distribute water from a source or storage reservoir to the end users. This usually will require some form of a valve that will have to be controlled.
DRINKING WATER CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
China Power Plant Reduces Capital Costs, Energy Use With New Integrated Membrane System
As engineers come under increasing pressure to reduce maintenance and operating costs, inefficient combination double-pass reverse osmosis and electrodeionization (RO/EDI) water treatment systems have begun to lose popularity as a means of providing ultra-pure water. Integrated membrane systems (IMS), on the other hand, combine multiple membrane-based water treatment processes into a single system. In this case study, find out how a heat and power plant in Northeast China lowered capital costs and energy use by adopting an IMS to replace its conventional water treatment system.
Feeling The Pressure To Reduce Leakage?
Water is a resource that is often taken for granted. As we see the effects of climate change and population growth, the challenges we will face regarding water supply and availability will only increase. Examples of this are beginning to surface extensively in many areas of the world. In Adelaide, Australia, the Murray River has long supplied Adelaide with its source of water however the Murray River has seen extensive overuse for potable, agricultural and industrial use and now combined with changing weather patterns, Adelaide is in trouble. By Brad Clarke, VP of Marketing & Sales, Singer Valve
The Future Of Water Supply In Florida
A majority of water utilities in Florida have historically relied on groundwater for their drinking water supply. In 2010, Florida water utilities used 2.2 billion gallons per day (BGD) of freshwater for public water supply compared to a total of 6.3 BGD used. Groundwater represented 89% of the 2.2 BGD freshwater used for public water supply (USGS, 2013). Fresh groundwater sources at shallow depths have historically been available in abundance By Gerardus Schers, Philip Waller, and Michael Condran, MWH Global
Add Flow To Your Liquid Analysis With Advanced Analytical Instrumentation
Averting regulatory violations and fines. Avoiding system disruptions. Maintaining effective monitoring in complex applications. How do you tackle these kinds of age-old plant monitoring problems?
In California, Come Rain Or Shine, Upfront Efficiency Is Always In Style
Caught between a withering drought and floods from winter storms, California faces the worst of both worlds—dealing with scarcity as well as stormwater. America, and much of the world, is watching to see how this trendsetting state handles those challenges. After generations of setting America’s style, from cowboys to Beatniks to Beach Boys to Silicon Valley billionaires, California can set perhaps its most important trend yet—it can lead the way to a more water-efficient America. It has to. The good news is that it can. By Jim Lauria, Senior Vice Director-Water Treatment, Bilfinger Water Technologies
White Paper: Impact Of HTA Dosing On Vent Stream Acidity Of An Acid Dosed MSF Plant As a part of the HTA dosing trial, a vent and distillate sampling system was designed to monitor acidity due to carbon dioxide in the MSF plant. This paper will discuss the results of the HTA dosing trial with respect to the effect on venting and corrosion.
How Larger Flow Meters Speak Volumes
As the price of water continues to increase, errors in flow measurement are magnified for distribution networks that transport large volumes of water. These systems often incorporate meters over 48 inches in diameter, which can be a challenge to calibrate. Learn how choosing the proper calibration method can ensure the most accurate measurements. By Richard Lowrie, Water and Wastwater Industry Specialist, KROHNE, Inc.
Theoretical Operation Of High-Efficiency Ultraviolet Water Treatment Chamber
The NeoTech Aqua ReFleX™ water purification chambers are the most efficient and compact units available today. They require an order of magnitude less energy and less than 25% of the system volume to achieve the same or better purification result as competing chambers. This is the first in a series of three white papers explaining the benefits of these systems. By J. R. Cooper, Ph.D, NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.
Pre-Filtering Multi Media Systems With Automatic, Self-Cleaning Filters Riviera Water District provides potable water for a small community at Clear Lake in Northern California. This lake historically produces significant summer algae blooms and, as a natural lake, has creek sediment runoffs in the winter
Constructing A Winding Box Culvert Channel In A Steep, Rocky Canyon
Special precast box culverts were used for one of the most significant segments of the $25.8 million emergency water restoration project, designated by the NRCS, known as the Cache Water Restoration Project (CWRP). The CWRP project involved the reconstruction and improvement of approximately six miles of mostly open, unlined channels that make up the Logan and Northern, as well as the Hyde Park and Smithfield canals. The project incorporated new precast pipeline, box culverts, a section of pressurized pipe, metering systems, turn-outs, head gates, and improved maintenance access.
DRINKING WATER APPLICATION NOTES
Analysis Of Effect On Water Quality Due To Leaching From Water Works Equipment Materials Using The TOC-VCSH Along with the revision of the drinking water quality standard of the Water Works Law, a part of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare ordinance providing the technical standards for water works facilities was revised
Water Distribution System Security Monitoring
Ensuring safe drinking water doesn’t end when the water leaves the water treatment plant. Protecting the safety and security of drinking water from accidental or intentional contamination within the distribution system is becoming increasingly important.
Chinese Chemical Plant Optimizes Water Treatment By Replacing Double Pass RO With A Single Pass RO And Liqui-Cel® Contactor System Electrodeionization (EDI) is widely used in many industrial water treatment systems throughout the world. In order to maximize the operating stability and life expectancy of an EDI system they were often designed with double pass RO using caustic injection pretreatment. By Membrana
Phosphate Corrosion Control In Drinking Water
Corrosion occurs because metals tend to oxidize when they come in contact with oxygenated water, resulting in the formation of stable metal oxides.
Hach LDO® Technology Improves The Efficiency Of Pharmaceutical Plant’s Wastewater Treatment Process
Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) is a global pharmaceutical and related health care company with the mission to extend and enhance human life. One of the company’s oldest and largest facilities was built in 1943 in East Syracuse, New York, when BMS was one of 12 companies chosen by the federal government to mass produce penicillin.
Application Note: Employing Best Water Quality Monitoring Practices To Reduce Runoff During Construction Under proposed EPA stormwater runoff guidelines, construction site operators will be required to actively monitor or sample stormwater discharges daily. The enhanced effluent rules take effect in August 2011 for construction sites that disturb 20 or more acres and February 2014 for sites that disturb 10 or more acres, and they may stipulate a strict numerical limit of less than 280 NTU for average turbidity (sediment in water) on any day. By YSI
Application Note: Using Real-Time Telemetry For Ecological Monitoring Of Coastal Wetlands The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR)in Mississippi is one of 27 protected estuarine reserves across the United States. By YSI
Monitoring Chloramination Using The APA6000™ Ammonia/Monochloramine Analyzer
Chloramination, a process often used for disinfection of drinking water and wastewater, involves mixing chlorine and ammonia to form chloramines. The relative concentrations of both chlorine and ammonia are essential for optimum disinfection.
Real-Time Conductivity Monitoring Estimates Chloride Levels In Minnesota Watershed By Using The Aqua TROLL 200 Monitoring deicing chemical levels can help researchers, city governments, and regulatory agencies understand runoff impacts on surface water, groundwater, and surrounding environments.
Application Bulletin: Reverse Osmosis Osmosis is the phenomenon of lower dissolved solids in water passing through a semi-permeable membrane into higher dissolved solids water until a near equilibrium is reached
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LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER
Why Engineers Can’t Solve The Water Shortage With Supply-Side Solutions
We are at the point where there is precious little left to dig or dam or drain or pump, and we are going to have a problem explaining that us engineers don’t have all the answers.
Reflective UV Cuts Energy Use By 90%
NeoTech has created a new reflective ultraviolet (UV) disinfection technology that requires only eight lamps— roughly 1/10 of the number of lamps required in similar flow-sized conventional UV systems—and only about 2kw of power.
Decrease Membrane Treatment Capital And O&M Costs With Optimum Flux Rates
Despite a global effort to standardize units of measure to the metric system, the water treatment industry still follows the U.S. trend in resisting that directive by referring to water volumes in treatment plants as gallons per day (GPD). While achieving a specified permeate GPD is certainly important in overall membrane plant design, production capacity has absolutely nothing to do with determining optimal methods of treating site-specific feedwaters and offers no indication of potential membrane fouling rates and related maintenance costs. To evaluate these factors, knowledgeable professionals rely on membrane flux rates as the key consideration in achieving optimal system design and operation. By Harold G. Fravel Jr., Executive Director, American Membrane Technology Association and Karen Lindsey, VP, Avista Technologies, Inc.
Water Recycling Made Easy: A Guide To Water Reuse For Food and Beverage Manufacturers
Available water supply can be compromised by more than just drought— a challenge food and beverage manufacturers know well.
The UV Uprising: How UV Disinfection Will Claw Its Way To Prominence
Chlorination in all of its forms — gas, liquid, or solid — has been the primary way for treatment plants to disinfect the treated wastewater. The treatment plants that use gas chlorination must face federal regulatory oversight in the form of a Risk Management Program (RMP). Liquid chlorine plants trade in the regulatory oversight for a more expensive and less effective product. While chlorine in its solid form is good for small treatment facilities known as package plants (named for their mobility). However, ultraviolet (UV) technology is rapidly altering the landscape of disinfection throughout the industry. By Sheldon Primus, MPA, COSS
Has Fracking Gone ‘Green’?
There are few topics more controversial these days than hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the debate rages on as to whether fracking poses a risk to water quality, a new desalination technique addresses two other environmental concerns: water scarcity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Developed by researchers at the University of British Columbia (UBC), the breakthrough technology uses excess carbon dioxide created in the fracking process to desalinate the process water, making it available for water reuse. It also generates chemicals — hydrochloric acid and carbonate salts — that are valuable for many industrial applications.
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ABOUT DRINKING WATER
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
- Source water for a community’s drinking water supply
- Drinking water treatment of source water
- Distribution of treated drinking water to consumers
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.