Not cool enough in summer. Not warm enough in winter. Guests staying at a prestigious country club in New York state complained regularly about the air conditioning and heating of their luxury suites and apartments. By Martin Dingman, Product Manager, Siemens Industry Inc.
In February of 2014, due to severe drought conditions, the Federal Bureau of Reclamation informed central California farmers that they would receive no irrigation water from the lakes, canals and reservoirs under the Bureau’s control.
Faced with a tight capital budget, a city in British Columbia required a new design for a water treatment plant capable of a maximum daily water production of 21 MPG during peak demand periods, with an ultimate demand of 29 MGD.
Water utility managers today face a conundrum. The American Water Works Association (AWWA) recommends a water utility strive for non-revenue water loss at 10-15 percent, but managers know that many systems lose as much as 50 percent. Discovering where these losses occur is difficult.
Turbidity is a principal physical characteristic of water and is an expression of the optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed by particles and molecules rather than transmitted in straight lines through a water sample. By Randy Turner, Technical Director, Swan Analytical USA
Badger Meter has and will continue to manufacture and provide products that meet the requirements of current and future lead-free standards. This white paper discusses these changing industry needs both as they relate to Badger Meter products and to water utilities in general.
Accurate, repeatable measurement of air and process gases is a key factor in improving accountability, productivity, and energy management processes. By Rich Cada, VP Sales & Marketing, Fox Thermal Instruments, Inc.
A study led by the Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation set out to prove the growing evidence 'that our groundwater is fairly heavily contaminated with human pathogenic viruses.'
In California, water is precious, competition for water is fierce and conservation is critical. In the midst of the state’s worst drought to date, Governor Jerry Brown declared historic statewide mandatory water restrictions calling for a 25 percent reduction in water usage through February 2016.
Process design in water treatment is historically confined to proprietary or user-defined spreadsheets on a unit operation basis, with users manually adding results from each unit process upstream into the next operation.
Virtually all industries from food and beverage to chemical processing use heat exchangers, condensers,or jacketed vessels. Leakage of the process into the cooling water represents a loss of product and can be a source of fouling or corrosion in the cooling water system.
Providing water distribution monitoring solutions since 1987, Telog continues to offer the industry’s leading remote data acquisition system including the most comprehensive family of battery powered, environmentally rugged wireless monitors available from any single supplier.
The Real UV254 'P' series portable meters can be used to measure UV transmittance (UVT) in a number of situations, and are especially beneficially when working with small UV disinfection systems. The following cases outline two situations in which Real Tech's portable meters are invaluable.
Osmosis is the phenomenon of lower dissolved solids in water passing through a semi-permeable membrane into higher dissolved solids water until a near equilibrium is reached.
Americans consume more than 9.1 billion gallons of bottled water annually - an average of twenty nine gallons per person every year.
UV disinfection systems disinfect water using UV light at the 254 nm wavelength. UV light at this wavelength actually destroys the DNA of microbiological material in the water which prevents dangerous viruses such as cryptosporidium and e-coli from reproducing and causing harm.
Many food processors use dissolved air flotation (DAF) to remove fats, oils and grease (FOG) and suspended solids from their wastewater streams.
Nitrate is present in high levels in wastewater due in part to the high nitrates present in human sewage but also from some types of industrial effluent entering the municipal sewer system.
Earlier this month, American Water, the largest, most geographically diverse investor owned water and wastewater utility in the U.S., played an active role in the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners’ (NARUC) 127th Annual Meeting,* which was held in Austin, TX.
Citing a $380 million need for infrastructure improvements and treatment costs, the LADWP Commissioners approved a “pass-throsource-water-scarcityugh charge” of $1.80 more a month for the average consumer, to begin next year and last until 2017.
Chicago is giving its oldest wastewater treatment facility a disinfection facelift and using the world’s largest reservoir to curb combined sewer overflows.
In the summer of 1864, French chemist Louis Pasteur was vacationing in the small eastern town of Arbois where he found the local wines too acidic for his palette.
In its latest Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies, leading analyst firm Gartner places the Internet of Things (IoT) at the top of the life cycle phase it calls the ‘Peak of Inflated Expectations’.
‘Sewer mining’ may sound like a search for mistakenly flushed and washed-away valuables, but it’s actually a sophisticated, sustainable strategy for combating water scarcity.
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.