Clamp-On Ultrasonic  Flowmeters: How They Measure Up
Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flowmeters: How They Measure Up

Not cool enough in summer. Not warm enough in winter. Guests staying at a prestigious country club in New York state complained regularly about the air conditioning and heating of their luxury suites and apartments. By Martin Dingman, Product Manager, Siemens Industry Inc.


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WEDECO LBX Series Closed Vessel Ultraviolet Reactors by Xylem WEDECO LBX Series Closed Vessel Ultraviolet Reactors by Xylem

The WEDECO LBX Series is a thousand times proven, energy efficient solution for the disinfection of pressurized wastewater, surface water, process water, and other low UV transmittance liquids.

Oxiperm PRO Chlorine Dioxide Generation Systems Oxiperm PRO Chlorine Dioxide Generation Systems

An ideal means of ensuring the cleanliness of drinking water is to use chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant. Chlorine dioxide is highly effective against all types of germs and has a long residual time in the system, meaning that it disinfects even without extracting water. The big advantage of chlorine dioxide over other disinfectants is its effectiveness against biofilms.

Versa Automated Headspace Vial Sampler Versa Automated Headspace Vial Sampler

Static headspace is one of the most popular techniques due to its versatility for analyzing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a complex variety of matrices. This is due to the elimination of tedious sample preparation steps and prevents contamination problems that are common to other sample introduction techniques. Teledyne Tekmar draws on our experience as a leader in low-level VOC analysis with the introduction of this companion autosampler to the Headspace product line.

Polaris™ MA1 Electromagnetic Flow Meter Polaris™ MA1 Electromagnetic Flow Meter

The Polaris™ MA1 is the first liquid flow meter offered by Magnetrol®, expanding the already diverse level and flow measurement portfolio that has been established over the last 80 years.

Instrumentation: OPTIFLUX 1000 Electromagnetic Flow Sensor Instrumentation: OPTIFLUX 1000 Electromagnetic Flow Sensor
The OPTIFLUX 1000 electromagnetic flow sensor is an economical solution for a wide range of applications. The flowmeter can be used in applications (including various aqueous solutions), where other measurement techniques were previously used.
Leopold FilterWorx® Automatic Control System by Xylem Leopold FilterWorx® Automatic Control System by Xylem

The FilterWorx® Automatic Control System by Leopold is a complete filter control package consisting of all instrumentation and control equipment for the automatic monitoring and control of municipal water filtration systems.

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Earth Day Outreach: Insights On Water Conservation And Quality Earth Day Outreach: Insights On Water Conservation And Quality

"Wastewater Dan” talks with FOX 4 News Kansas City about drought conditions in California and procedures to conserve water in the home. He also demonstrates the use of a total dissolved solids (TDS) meter to test drinking water quality, and interprets the results.

WRF Direct Potable Reuse Research Projects

Water Research Foundation at the Silicon Valley Advanced Water Purification Center talking with Jim Fiedler and Andrew Salveson about upcoming WRF Direct Potable Reuse research projects.

Bill Gates and Jimmy Drink Poop Water

Bill Gates challenges Jimmy to taste test water from the Omniprocessor, which turns sewage into clean drinking water.

Mueller Systems 420 Remote Connect/Disconnect Meter (RDM) Video Mueller Systems 420 Remote Connect/Disconnect Meter (RDM) Video

See how 420 Remote Connect/Disconnect Meter (RDM) from Mueller Systems can optimize AMI and AMR systems to help utilities improve the operational efficiency of their water systems.

Matt Damon's Mission To End World Poverty

In 2007 he was named People magazine's Sexiest Man Alive, but these days, Matt Damon is getting noticed for something far less sexy. During a trip to Africa in 2006, Damon made it his mission to help people in developing countries have access to safe water and sanitation. He talks to Katie Couric in "World 3.0".

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In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:

  1. Source water for a community’s drinking water supply
  2. Drinking water treatment of source water
  3. Distribution of treated drinking water to consumers

Drinking Water Sources

Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater. 

Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.

Drinking Water Treatment

Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.

There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.

The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.

The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.

During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.

Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.

Drinking Water Distribution

Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.

A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.

Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.