This white paper describes how utilities can apply TCO evaluation, which takes into account on-going operations costs, replacement and lifecycle costs and personnel, as well as initial capital investment, to get a more complete picture of what systems will actually cost over time. These TCO calculations prove that point-to-multipoint fixed-network solutions can provide the best TCO of any competitive system, including manual, drive-by or mesh fixed-network solutions.
“To me, Microclor® is the top of the line on‐site generation system on the market due to low maintenance and it being very user friendly.” Larry English, Water Quality Manager, Daphne Utilities. Read the full project profile to learn more.
Chemical, petrochemical, and oil-reﬁning plants are process-intensive operations with regulatory requirements to protect the surrounding water and air from the effects of industrial pollution. These external demands are matched by equally compelling internal pressures to address product puriﬁcation needs, ﬁnd alternatives to utilizing costly fresh water in production processes, reduce the carbon footprint, and operate efficiently and proﬁtably.
The Jimo, China, municipal wastewater plant was originally designed to treat a combination of municipal and textile wastewater (120,000 m3/d) with Class IB effluent limits for BOD, COD, ESS, TN, NH3-N and TP.
The City of Salem uses a slow sand filtration water treatment process, which uses naturally occurring biological activity to clean drinking water. The water treatment facility treats an average of 30 MGD throughout most of the year, with a peak of 50 MGD in the summer.
When Flint Michigan discontinued purchasing water from the Detroit Water Authority and began using the Flint River as their raw water source they unfortunately did not consider the potential impact on lead and copper corrosion and the impact on the public.
The Mountain Regional Water District is a Special Service District of the county that was established by the Summit County Commission in 2000 to regionalize water service by consolidating several public and private water companies.
Jericho Water District (JWD) is one of the largest water districts in New York, serving 58,000 people through 18,604 residential and commercial service connections on Long Island.
Chatsworth Water Works Commission provides both water and wastewater services to the 5,000 residents of the cities of Chatsworth and Eton, GA.
Built in 2002, Southern Nevada Water Authority’s (SNWA) River Mountains Water Treatment Facility is a state-of-the art water treatment facility that delivers 300 million gallons per day and was designed to be expanded to deliver up to 600 million gallons per day of treated water in the future.
Originally built to treat 10 million gallons per day (MGD), the Quail Creek Water Treatment Plant in Washington County, Utah, now has an operational capacity of 60 MGD and a design capacity of 80 MGD.
Electrical conductivity is the most convenient method for testing RO water quality and membrane performance. Pure water is actually a poor electrical conductor. The amount of ionized substances (salts, acids, or bases) dissolved in water determines its conductivity. Normally, the vast majority of the dissolved minerals in tap, surface or ground water
UV disinfection systems disinfect water using UV light at the 254 nm wavelength. UV light at this wavelength actually destroys the DNA of microbiological material in the water which prevents dangerous viruses such as cryptosporidium and e-coli from reproducing and causing harm.
QuEChERS is a Quick-Easy-Cheap-Effective-Rugged-Safe extraction method that has been developed for the determination of pesticide residues in agricultural commodities.
Two new particle detecting technologies have been developed to help optimize filter performance at water treatment plants (WTP).
In order to reduce the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts in drinking water, alternative disinfectant use has become increasingly widespread. Monochloramine is a leading alternative disinfectant that offers advantages for municipal water. This tech brief details the removal of monochloramine using activated carbon.
Chloramination, a process often used for disinfection of drinking water and wastewater, involves mixing chlorine and ammonia to form chloramines. The relative concentrations of both chlorine and ammonia are essential for optimum disinfection.
The water municipality at a mid-size city in the Western region of the U.S. serving a population of about180,000 people needed to address a chlorine disinfection system problem at one of its water treatment plants.
This year has seen historic flooding across the South. In addition to the devastating rains that recently hit Louisiana, severe floods pummeled Texas earlier this year. In both cases, the states’ National Guards were first responders, rescuing families, delivering meals and supplies to survivors, and providing local agencies with high-water trucks, boats, and helicopters.
Drinking water systems must meet a myriad of regulatory requirements to ensure the public’s health and safety. Excess turbidity can be a first indication of degrading water quality, so accurate and timely turbidity measurement is critical. Hach has been a leader in providing analytical instruments to the water industry for many years. Water Online spoke with Hach about turbidity measurements and how to ensure test results reflect actual water quality conditions.
Look back with me a full decade (and a year) to 2005.
Using efficient irrigation for outdoor lawns is an effective way to save water and to delay the need for water utilities to develop new water sources. In 2005, Orange County Utilities (FL) began an effort to plan for alternate water sources in Orange County because its primary water source, the Floridan Aquifer, was predicted to meet its capacity to provide water.
A recent project by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation in Tucson, AZ, sought to vet more affordable and environmentally-friendly technologies to achieve potable reuse, with promising results.
When it comes to disinfection at treatment plants, chlorine has quite the reputation. To some, it’s known as a reliable and trusted solution. To many others, especially among the public at large, it’s looked at with skepticism and concern – but that may be simply a matter of not knowing the facts. Either way, it’s one of the ubiquitous aspects of water and wastewater disinfection… and for good reason.
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.