Water reuse efforts in the West Coast are a priority and have the Ground Water Replenishing System (GWRS) of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) utilizing new technologies for water conservation.
DRINKING WATER CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
The Basics Of Disinfection
From utility water to wastewater, whether used in industrial processes or for drinking, disinfection plays a prominent role in providing safe and useable water. Water free from pathogens and other microorganisms ensures processes run efficiently and people are kept safe from disease. By Harland R Pond, Business Development Manager – Water Treatment
Project Profile: Highland Hills MHC Highland, MI 450 GPM AD26 Arsenic, Iron System In January 2008 AdEdge Technologies, Inc. was selected among other vendors by Nationwide MHP to supply a turnkey arsenic, iron, and manganese treatment system for the Highland Hills MHP in Highland, Michigan. The system consists of multiple wells that combine together to serve potable water to 306 connections and a population of 765 in the community. By Adedge Technologies Inc.
Why Pilot Test Prior To Purchasing A Water Treatment System?
There are a number of advanced water treatment tools available today that were not available 10 years ago, which broaden the approach to finding the most effective and least expensive treatment alternatives. Pilot testing of various technologies is the most beneficial method to determine the efficiency of treatments.
Top 10 Considerations When Converting To On-Site Hypochlorite
Transporting pure salt - the raw material needed to generate sodium hypochlorite onsite – is more cost effective, stable, and safer, than transporting and storing bulk sodium hypochlorite, or gaseous/liquid chlorine cylinders from local chemical suppliers. The conversion to on-site hypochlorite generation can be achieved by adhering to these design guidelines.
Case Study: Customized Hydraulic And Water Quality Model Interface In March 2003, Black & Veatch started a project to streamline the hydraulic and water quality modeling processes for one of the largest wholesale water suppliers in Florida. The water supplier delivers water from fourteen different sources to more than two million people in six different communities. The client needed a way for its staff of water quality, planning, and engineering professionals to perform hydraulic simulations on a regular basis
Water Supply Needs At Odds With Regional Demands To Lower Power Use
The shoreline of the Red Sea is a dazzling destination for tourists and locals to experience the beach and enjoy marine activities. In Egypt, the shoreline sprawls from the Suez Canal in the north, down to the southern part of the country bordering Sudan.
Overcoming Difficult Conditions, Salty Groundwater And Changes In Feedwater Quality
Kibbutz Reim had to convert salty groundwater into a high quality irrigation resource in this desert-like region. High recovery was essential to this customer, both because of the limited amount of groundwater available and the challenge of brine disposal from their inland location.
An Alternative Mathematical Model For Oxygen Transfer Evaluation In Clean Water
Energy consumption from aeration system is a biggest part of the total energy cost in wastewater treatment plant and account for as much as 60% of the energy consumption for the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is very important to know how effective the aeration system and significant attention has been paid to development and upgrade of standard method for quantifying oxygen transfer efficiency of the aeration system. By Yanjun (John) He, PE, BCEE, Kruger Inc.
High Recovery Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment For Industrial, Agricultural, And Municipal Applications
Industry accounts for nearly 60 percent of fresh water withdrawals in the developed world and agriculture consumes 70 percent of fresh water supplies globally, according to UNESCO.
4 Tips For Building Meter-Related Revenue The water meter industry operates on revenue and the modern utility is both a business and a public service. This article deals with the business and revenue side of the water industry. I don’t question the ability of the modern water utility to produce safe, high-quality water. However, I am concerned about the service side, since fairness to the end users of our product and fairness to the utilities who produce this very high-quality product is important and closely related to the revenue issues. It is our job to collect the revenue to which we are entitled by the application of fair business practices and the use of accurate and cost-saving measurement devices. I will talk about building revenue by avoiding revenue loss. By Floyd S. Salser, Jr., CEO, MARS Company
DRINKING WATER APPLICATION NOTES
Application Note: Real-Time Monitoring-Through Swell And High Water Application article about water quality monitoring pontoon providing continuous data in the Burry Inlet, an estuary in Wales. By YSI
Chemical Cost Comparison Of A Conventional Deaerator Vs A Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactor System Mixed bed ion exchange is often used to polish Reverse Osmosis (RO) permeate in many industrial water systems.This process has been utilized for several years and it is well known that the management of the dissolved Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in the water is critical for an efficient operation. By Membrana
Using Real-Time Telemetry For Ecological Monitoring Of Coastal Wetlands The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR)in Mississippi is one of 27 protected estuarine reserves across the United States. By YSI
Application Note: Water Flows From The Golden Hills Of California Each morning John Johnson drives the few miles from his smalltown home in northern California to the Center at Pardee Reservoir. Nestled among the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, the reservoir is a long 100 miles away from San Francisco Bay. By YSI
Bringing Efficiency And New Confidence To BOD₅ Analysis
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) analysis is the test everyone loves to hate—and for compelling reasons.
Determination Of EN15662:2008 - Determination Of Pesticide Residue In Food Of Plant Origin, By An Automated QuEChERS Solution
Pesticide residue laboratories are required to undertake analyses of an ever increasing number of samples. The analyses typically involve use of multi-residue methods (both GC-MS and LC-MS) to test for over 500 pesticide residues.
Application Note: Employing Best Water Quality Monitoring Practices To Reduce Runoff During Construction Under proposed EPA stormwater runoff guidelines, construction site operators will be required to actively monitor or sample stormwater discharges daily. The enhanced effluent rules take effect in August 2011 for construction sites that disturb 20 or more acres and February 2014 for sites that disturb 10 or more acres, and they may stipulate a strict numerical limit of less than 280 NTU for average turbidity (sediment in water) on any day. By YSI
Application Note: Turbidity Monitoring In Drinking Water Treatment Plants Turbidity, or the relative clarity of a liquid (in this case drinking water), is caused by the presence of microscopic particles such as clay, silt, or other fine undissolved matter
Application Note: Desalination Plants: YSI Instruments Monitor Flow & Water Quality At Multiple Stages Desalination is the process of removing salt from sea water or brackish river or groundwater to make potable water. By YSI
Disinfection By-Products (DBP) Precursor Monitoring
Chlorine has long been used as a primary disinfection method for many water and wastewater treatment applications. However, there is growing concern about the harmful DBP’s produced by the use of chlorine.
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LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER
Protecting Your Drinking Water For 40 Years
As I traveled across the country this year, there’s one thing I could count on everywhere I went: tap water that’s safe to drink.
New Challenge: Put Technology To Work To Protect Drinking Water
You likely remember when, this past summer, half a million people who live in the Toledo, Ohio, area were told not to drink the water coming out of their taps for several days. A state of emergency was declared because of a harmful algal bloom, which released toxins into the water that could have made many people ill.
EPA’s Upcoming Regulation On Strontium — What You Need To Know
In October, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) made a preliminary determination to regulate strontium in the nation's drinking water.
21 Questions For The EPA
To celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the U.S. EPA organized a Twitter chat (#safetodrink) as an open forum for questions and answers on SDWA issues, or whatever else popped up. Here's how it unfolded.
Drinking Water Protection — Are We Doing It Right?
“We have analytical instruments that can see things in astronomically small numbers, but are we looking for the right things?”
Emergency Tank Repair Prevention And Preparation — Avoid Winter Woes
Drinking water tanks are surrounded by threats daily, but most problems associated with emergency tank repairs can be prevented. Extra time and maintenance may be needed to ensure the tank is protected, and water operators should have an effective plan to restore water services if a tank emergency does occur.
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ABOUT DRINKING WATER
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
- Source water for a community’s drinking water supply
- Drinking water treatment of source water
- Distribution of treated drinking water to consumers
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.