A dissolved oxygen sensor ought to be simple to understand. Whether it is membrane or optically based, it gives a signal that is proportional to the concentration of oxygen concentration in water.
DRINKING WATER CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS
A Rosemount Chlorine Analyzer Proves Just The Job For Seawater Duty At Dow's Terneuzen Site
The Dow Benelux site in Terneuzen, the Netherlands, uses seawater for process cooling. Environmental regulations require careful control of the concentration of chlorine added to control microbial fouling. The existing chlorine measurement system had become outdated, so after stringent tests Dow decided to replace it with a Rosemount Analytical Model TCL analyzer from Emerson Process Management. By Emerson Process Management, Rosemount Analytical
From Well Above To Far Below MCLs: AdEdge Oxidation/Filtration Tames Arsenic And Iron
In November 2009, AdEdge Water Technologies, LLC was contacted by Great West Engineering to provide an arsenic and iron removal system for the Gore Hill County Water Treatment Plant Wells #1 and #2 in Great Falls, Montana.
Straining To Make Diaphragm Operated Automatic Control Valves Effective
Diaphragm Operated Automatic Control Valves (ACVs) require reasonably clean water to function effectively and reliably. Having a strainer upstream of the actual ACV is very important, but also having a smaller strainer located at the inlet of the pilot system on the ACV is also well advised. By Brad Clarke,VP Sales and Marketing, Singer Valve
Case Study: Leveraging Data To Optimize Operations And Manage Budgetary Pressure Budgetary pressure on water utilities continues to grow due to factors such as new infrastructure demands, increasing regulatory compliance requirements, and the scarcity or declining quality of source water. By Gabi Miles, Hach Company
Use Of UV Technology Gaining Acceptance Within Process Industries
The use of Ultra Violet (UV) technology within process industries has grown tremendously in recent years. Water, fruit juice, syrup and brines are increasingly seen as the largest volume ingredient in many food products, and the need to protect human health, whilst reduce the level of chemical preservatives, and to extend shelf life leads to the incorporation of UV systems within the food manufacturing process.
UV Disinfection In The Developing World
Clean water is essential for life. Nearly one billion people around the world lack access to safe water and approximately 3.5 million deaths each year are linked to waterrelated diseases. By Real Tech
The Important Role Of Ultrasonic Flowmeters In Biogas Production
As interest in biogas grows, more attention is being paid to measuring biogas flow, which has long been a problem area in process measuring technology. By Dick Laan, Ultrasonic Flow Product Manager, and Rick Lowrie, Water & Wastewater Industry Manager, KROHNE, Inc.
Water Utilities Slow To Embrace Smart Meter Technologies Water utilities appear to be under water when it comes to conservation efforts and adopting new technologies to help customers monitor water usage. Although water is viewed as a precious resource around the globe, little is being done to save water in North America.
Groundwater Replenishment System - Orange County, California (Case Study)
The full-scale advanced treatment system takes filtered secondary effluent from the neighboring OCSD treatment plant and converts it to water that exceeds all drinking water quality standards. The 70 million gallon per day (MGD) system consists of microfiltration (MF), reverse osmosis (RO), and the TrojanUVPhox™ UV-oxidation/disinfection system.
Meet (Or Beat) EPA Nitrate MCLs With An AdEdge Packaged Nitrate Removal System
When a food processing plant in Lancaster County, PA was forced to supply bottled water to its employees due to high nitrate levels in its raw water, they had no choice but to investigate a nitrate removal solution. In this case study you’ll learn how the plant avoided EPA violations by reducing nitrate contamination levels to below 8 mg/L and simplified continuous monitoring by implementing a new packaged nitrate removal system from AdEdge.
DRINKING WATER APPLICATION NOTES
Comparison of UV vs. Sodium Hypochlorite (Fact Sheet)
Hypochlorite has some significant environmental concerns associated with DBPs and residual toxicity.
Application Note: Employing Best Water Quality Monitoring Practices To Reduce Runoff During Construction Under proposed EPA stormwater runoff guidelines, construction site operators will be required to actively monitor or sample stormwater discharges daily. The enhanced effluent rules take effect in August 2011 for construction sites that disturb 20 or more acres and February 2014 for sites that disturb 10 or more acres, and they may stipulate a strict numerical limit of less than 280 NTU for average turbidity (sediment in water) on any day. By YSI
Advanced On-Line Instrumentation Helps DAF Systems Lower Costs
Many food processors use dissolved air flotation (DAF) to remove fats, oils and grease (FOG) and suspended solids from their wastewater streams.
Determination Of Hexanal In Foods Utilizing Dynamic Headspace
Hexanal is one of many well-documented aromatic components that contribute to flavor and aroma in common consumer food products containing omega-6 fatty acids. Hexanal content is also used to measure the oxidative status of foods rich in omega-6 fatty acids.
Application Note: Miami Conservancy District Uses Nitrate Screening As Conjunctive Management Tool Tasked with monitoring a watershed covering nearly 4,000 square miles, almost 2,300 miles of rivers and streams, and a huge aquifer that provides drinking water for more than 1.2 million people, water quality monitoring specialists at the Miami Conservancy District (MCD) in Dayton, Ohio, have their hands full. By YSI
Organics Monitoring (TOC)
Total organic carbon (TOC) testing is the traditional method for determining organic matter in water. However there is a far more practical, affordable and often more useful way to measure organic matter. UV absorbance testing (UVA) is rapidly becoming the preferred method of measuring organics even when the levels of organics being measured are very small.
Application Note: Using Real-Time Telemetry For Ecological Monitoring Of Coastal Wetlands The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR)in Mississippi is one of 27 protected estuarine reserves across the United States. By YSI
Measuring The Chlorine Content In The Emergency Chlorination Of Waterworks Many municipal waterworks perform no permanent disinfection of drinking water. However, in many cases a process known as emergency chlorination takes place. The process is switched on in case of need, adding chlorine to the drinking water as a disinfectant.
Real-Time Conductivity Monitoring Estimates Chloride Levels In Minnesota Watershed By Using The Aqua TROLL 200 Monitoring deicing chemical levels can help researchers, city governments, and regulatory agencies understand runoff impacts on surface water, groundwater, and surrounding environments.
Hydrogen Sulfide Removal From Water Using AquaSorb® CX-MCA
The “rotten egg” odor in some water supplies is caused by sulfide in water. Sulfide can be treated using oxidation techniques, the goal being to convert the sulfide to high oxidation state species such as sulfate to eliminate the taste and odor concerns. Traditional oxidation techniques such as ozone and chlorine can be used, but can be expensive due to the equipment required to add and monitor the oxidant, and can lead to by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs), which are regulated in drinking water supplies.
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LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER
UVC LEDs For Biofilm Prevention
Biofilm has adverse effects on all types of instruments, sensors, and equipment used in power plants, food and beverage production plants, desalination facilities, paper mills, and marine environments. This includes growth on pipelines, tanks, heat exchangers, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, and other equipment. Biofilms can cause reduction of heat transfer, increased pressure drop and corrosion of metallic surfaces, and many forms of contamination.
Hydraulic Fracturing And The EPA Water Study: Where Do We Go From Here?
It’s been two months since EPA released its much anticipated draft report on hydraulic fracturing, and organizations like ours are busy preparing their official comments, which are due at the end of August. But based on what we have learned so far and what has been written in the media, it’s important to spend some time on what the report said — and didn’t say — and what it all means.
Texas Is Nearly Out Of This Drought — But We’re Not In The Clear
Unfortunately, a good rain washes away more than the drought; it washes away much of man’s interest in providing for the next one, and it washes the supports from under those who know that another dry cycle is coming and who urge their fellows to make ready for it.
Congress Needs To Reauthorize The Ex-Im Bank
The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im) is the official export credit agency of the United States. Established by Executive Order in 1934 with a mission of supporting American jobs by facilitating the export of U.S. goods and services, in 1945 the Ex-Im Bank became an independent, self-sustaining Executive Branch agency. For over 80 years, the Bank has provided financing tools and services that allow small, medium, and large companies to compete for global sales.
Beat The Heat: How To Fight Fire Hydrant Abuse
To overheated summer residents, they are a free trip to the waterpark. To utilities, they seem more like a flood of money spilling down the street. Any way you look at it, an illegally opened fire hydrant is a lot of lost water.
Making The Most Of AMI
The notion of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), if not its practice, has become ubiquitous in the water industry. It’s hard to escape the feeling that following the evolution from manual to drive-by metering, the power and efficiency of AMI will soon become a utility standard.
DRINKING WATER NEWS
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ABOUT DRINKING WATER
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
- Source water for a community’s drinking water supply
- Drinking water treatment of source water
- Distribution of treated drinking water to consumers
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.