In recent years, there has been increasing concerns regarding the carbon footprint of municipal infrastructures. Carbon footprint is a measure of the environmental impact in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) production in units of carbon dioxide. Although the rise of GHGs is a concern due to its contribution to climate change, other types of impacts can also be included for a more holistic assessment.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool that can effectively be used to investigate the impacts of a product in a holistic manner. LCA includes the extraction of raw materials, processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, reuse, maintenance and disposal processes. The environmental burdens that are usually evaluated include the use of land, energy, water, and other materials and the release of substances to the air, water, and soil.