Water filtration is the separation impurities and contaminants usually solid material from water by using media filter that blocks passage contaminants through physical obstruction, chemical adsorption or a combination of both.
Filtration has evolved from Hippocratic sleeves in ancient Greece to more complicated solid carbon blocks that also employ chemical adsorption to enhance filtration. During the chemical adsorption process impurities are made to break their bond with water and stick to the media filter.
Different filter media are designed to trap different types of contaminates. The most advance media filters are solid carbon blocks. Filtration however might not be effective where contaminates are dissolved in water.
Contaminates may include clays and silts, natural organic matter, precipitates from other treatment processes in the facility, iron and manganese, and microorganisms. Filtration clarifies water and enhances the effectiveness of disinfection.
Examples of filters are:
• Charcoal Filters low cost, usually used to filter water.
• KDF Filter Media used in heavy metals, hot water
• Sediment Filters used in muddy water to filter solids.
• Ceramic Filters preferred by campers, hikers
• Ultraviolet Water Filters used to destroy pathogens and germs
• Magnetic Water Filters used to reshape water minerals with magnets
• Catalytic Water Filters uses resin bead coatings, to target specific toxins
• Alkaline Water Ionizers adds milli-volt charge to water and minerals, shifts pH
Because water filters incorporate the process of chemical adsorption modern filtration is capable of removing far more contaminates than many other methods of purifying water. Filtration also is easy to construct and operate. It cheaper and uses far much less energy relative to other methods such as distillation.