After rendering the agricultural land infertile, the huge amount of ground water being used for dyeing industry on the banks of river Bandi in Pali is fast depleting the groundwater and adversely affecting the dwindling forest resources of the area.
"For cloth dyeing, huge amount of water is required by the industries. Water is supplied from the local dug wells in the agriculture fields. High rate of withdrawal of water has deteriorated the quality of groundwater as reported by the local people. Wood and charcoal made from wood is used for boilers in the factories. This has adversely affected the dwindling forest resource of the area," says a report by the Geological Survey of India.
According to the report, dyeing industries located on both the banks of Bandi river near Pali town have been discharging foul-smelling, coloured, liquid effluent into the river. During this study, emphasis was given on the nature and spatial extent of the pollution caused by these dyeing industries. Priority was given to identify the nature of effluent discharged by polluting industries and its effect on the natural resources, namely, water and soil in the vicinity of the dyeing industries.
Samples of polluted water, flowing through the river, were collected from different locations by GSI. Water samples were also collected from dug wells located either on the banks of Bandi river or away from it in order to assess the spatial extension of pollution in these areas. The foul-smelling liquid effluent discharged by these dyeing industries was seen flowing up to Dholeria village. It was observed that these dyeing industries are causing irreparable damage to agriculture and groundwater to an alarming extent.
"Downstream of Bandi river, near Nera village, a dam has been constructed. The reservoir of the dam is affected by polluted water. If the dyeing industries are not shifted to other locality, irrigation by this polluted water is going to spoil the agriculture fields further downstream. The analyses of industrial effluent and dug well water samples collected from the area show high concentration of TDS, chloride and sulphate and high conductivity. Lead content in some of the samples is above permissible limit of 0.1 mg/l," reads the report.
At the moment, there are only five treatment plants, which are not sufficient to treat the total volume of wastewater generated by industries. "Probably all the dyeing units are not linked with the drains which carry industrial waste water to treatment plants in order to avoid direct disposal of untreated effluent to the Bandi river. The BOD & COD of untreated wastewater has been recorded as 43 to 140 mg/l (permissible limit 30 mg/l) & 464 to 1320 mg/l(permissible limit250 mg/l) respectively. Effluent treatment was not able to make the water colourless and reduce TDS. Treated water is not fit for irrigation due to high content of TDS and can only be reused in dyeing industries," reports GSI.
Besides, that industrial wastewater flowing through Bandi river generates foul smell causing vomiting sensation to the people in the affected areas. Irrigation by polluted water has rendered agricultural fields infertile. There is an irrigation dam constructed downstream of Bandi but that too has been found to be polluted by the effluents and may spread pollution further downstream of the dam. Firewood provided to boilers of the dyeing industries is collected from local forests causing largescale deforestation, reports GSI.
SOURCE: Geological Survey of India